Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Importance of Using Social Media in Business Research Paper

The Importance of Using Social Media in Business - Research Paper Example   Through social media, businesses are able to establish and use social marketing as a tool to expand. Social marketing is one of the key factors for making a business successful in terms of sales by increasing the market range. For marketing to become a success in social media by the use of social marketing, businesses must set up hierarchies that prove effective in marketing the business. At the bottom of the hierarchy, pyramid is blogging. It is a known fact that the internet has revolutionized the world. Using this view, it has been observed that blogging has seen to revolutionize the internet world. Blogs are online diaries, which help the business people reach their potential customers. Through blogs, businesspersons are able to air views to their customers and, using them as online dialogue, receive feedback. Through blogs, businesses are able to monitor the progress of their businesses and hence they are able to effectively market their business. From blogs, businesses are also able to make the necessary adjustments so as to achieve success through factors such as increased sales, which result in a higher profit margin in the business. Blogging comes as an aid in building customer loyalty. This is in the sense that a businessperson is able to keep his or her customers engaged with your business by keeping customers apprised of new products in the business and fluctuation of prices. New services in the business are also known to the customers through blogs due to their accessibility (Debono, 2012).

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Little Signs of Passion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Little Signs of Passion - Essay Example One of the stylistic devices used in Little signs of passion is the mismatch of text with the images. In a single panel where the text is supposed to inform the context of the images Spiegelman intentionally creates a disconnect between the two. Spiegelman has constructed Little signs of passion as a collage of contexts within panels. The collection of collages is made to produce a confused and broken register by collapsing it inwards. Spiegelman destabilizes the chronology, timeline, and narrative voice in a manner that creates incoherence. Further, Spiegelman creates a discordant and amplified register in order to distort the slapstick tumble format. It is also clear that Spiegelman’s work is preoccupied with the themes of depression and madness, but using a postmodern approach. Spiegelman has intentionally distorted the formal unity and coherence of the narrative in many ways. One of the ways that Spiegelman does this is the use of off-beat word-picture combination with a touch of disturbing images creates an agonizingly slow pace of transition for the reader and Spiegelman crowns all this with the aura of impending terror. Spiegelman further uses modern thematic to introduce some underlying terror which is barely expressed. The use of formal play in Little signs of passion distorts the format of jokes so that they become difficult to decipher, and they tend to resist interpretation. In Little signs of passion, amplification is achieved through diegetic development. The narrative of Foul Bernie leaving a pornographic film is played in over thirty panels with later versions of the narrative including other characters such as Roxie and Augie to give Foul Bernie an opportunity to deliver an anecdote before tripping.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Russia and the Soviet Union 1917-1924 Essay Example for Free

Russia and the Soviet Union 1917-1924 Essay 1. The March revolution of 1917: * The Tsar abdicates on the 20th March, in favour of his brother Michael because his son Alexis was too young. * However, the people had other ideas, they wanted a change in government. 2. The provisional Government: * The crowds gathered outside the Tauride Palace Demanding that the Duma took charge of the country. * A temporary government was formed to rule the country until an election could be held to decide who and how the country would be run. 3. Soviets * AS the provisional government was taking way, another group was starting up, the Petrograd Soviet. People sent representatives to sort out their interests. * The first thing that the soviet did was to issue order 1, which gave it control of the armed forces in Petrograd. How did the Bolsheviks seize power? March 1917 Provisional Government + Petrograd Soviet Control Russia 1. What do they do? The first thing what happened was: Political prisoners were freed; they made the press free to do what they liked. There would be freedom of speech, the right to strike and an end to social discrimination and the death penalty. 2. Issue 1:the war The provisional government continued the war with the agreement with the Soviets. Everybody had too much pride to be beaten by the Germans. Also they wanted to stay allies with Britain and France in the future. The war continued badly and the Russians were still losing food and fuel. The people needed the war to end. 3. Issue 2:land As soon as the Tsar was gone the peasants thought they could have had always wanted, Land. But the provisional government wouldnt give them it. This was because they though that they should leave it to the properly elected government. People began to take land anyway. 4. The return of Lenin When Lenin returned it was a whole new start to the revolution. Lenin had not been in Russia during the March Revolution. With a lot of help from the Germans he got a sealed train to Petrograd at the beginning of April. The 1st speech that Lenin made to the people was demanding that thee should be no co-operating with the provisional government, the war should be ended, the land should be given to the peasants and that the Soviets should take power. These points were later written up in the April Theses 5. The July Days Only the Bolsheviks opposed the war. During the 1917 summer more and more common people opposed to the war. In July the Kerensky launched an attack against the Russians, which they lost. Thus there was a huge demonstration in Petrograd, which became known as the July days. Everyone poured into the streets protested about the war. They all to the Bolsheviks to lead them but they turned them away. Kerensky produced letters incriminating Lenin. This forced Lenin to flee to Finland. * The war distinguished the Bolsheviks from other groups because thy opposed the war. 6. Autumn 1917 * Events started to work in the Bolsheviks Favour * Kerensky had appointed a general called Kornilov to be head of the army * There wanted to establish a strong sturdy Government in Russia his own government. * Many people of the Petrograd panicked; there was bound to be violence and bloodshed. * Kerensky also panicked and asked the Bolsheviks for help. * He gave rifles to the Bolshevik Red Guard; groups of workers who had been training secretly, and now appeared on the streets to help defend the city. * Kornilov troops never arrived. The railway workers and other soldiers persuaded them not to fight their fellow Russians. * How ever the Red Guard kept their rifles. How did the Bolsheviks Seize Power? Moral was low, there were riots and fights, Russia was a descrase. The Bolsheviks were now moving in on the Winter Palace, where the provisional Government was meeting. During the afternoons, most of the Cossacks had slipped out of the palace, leaving some military cadets and the Womens death Battalion. At 9.00p.m the Aurora (a ship whose sailors supported the Bolsheviks) fired a blank shot to start the attack. There was little machine-gun fire, and very little damage was done to the palace. The womens death battalion offered no resistance, came out and went back to camp. The red guards entered and made their way along the miles of corridors. When they did meet military cadets, they gave up, as did the Provisional Government when the Red Guards found them. The Bolsheviks had control of Petrograd. Key points of how the Bolsheviks took over * The general moral of the people was low, causing fights and riots. * Bolsheviks moved onto the Winter Palace, where the Provisional Government was meeting * At 9.00p.m, the Aurora, fired a blank shot and started the Attack * All offensive gave up to the Bolsheviks, and they had complete control of Petrograd. The Role of Lenin in the November 1917 Revolution Lenin made a difference Lenin didnt make a difference * Limitless capability to persuade people * He had the power to say what people wanted, and give it to them * He listened to people on the street, factories and Barracks, and knew what the people wanted * With out Lenin the Bolshevik coup would have been postponed and might of failed. * After all this the Bolshevik partys membership began to grow rapidly * Lenins role in some historians opinions, fell short of Trotskys Conclusion Did he make a difference? I would conclude that Lenin did make a difference because without him, people would not of got what he wanted; the Bolshevik coup would of failed. He did some think different, he listened to the people, he found out what they wanted and helped them, where as other leaders wouldnt, hey would of done it their way. How did Lenin Control Russia in 1917? Lenin had seized power in Petrograd, but for how long could he hold on to it? A few days after the takeover, Kerensky sent some troops to let the provisional Government take control again Populist Measures November * A maximum eight-hour day and 48 hour week declared for industrial workers. * Employment insurance introduced for workers for injuries, illness, and unemployment * All titles and class distinctions abolished no dukes or lords, the title comrade for everybody. * Women declared equal to men. December * All Factories to be put under the control of workers comities. * All banks taken over by the government * The army to be more democratic officers to be elected, no ranks or saluting * Divorce made easier and marriages do not have to be in churches. The Cheka In December 1917, Lenin set up the Cheka. The head of this secret police force was the cold and incorruptible Felix Dzerzhinski. He set up headquarters in the lubyanka in Moscow, a name that was to become feared because of the torture and executions that were carried out there. The Cheka arrested people who were considered dangerous. After an assassination attempt on Lenin, the Cheka launched the Red Terror. Anybody who spoke out against the government was arrested, and many were shot with out t trail. Sometimes it was enough to be someone who might oppose the Bolsheviks. The use of terror to control people was to become a feature of the new regime. Constituent Assembly * By November 1917, Lenin had been forced into holding elections promised by the provisional government. * Railway workers said that the would shut down the railways if Lenin did not go ahead with Russias first free elections. * These were to choose a constitunal Assembly, which would work out how Russia would be governed in the future. Peace * Lenin sent Trotsky to meet the Germans to negotiate a peace treaty. * Trotsky walked out of the talks because the Germans demanded so much territory. * He stated that there would be No Peace, No war * However, Lenin sent him back, he was sure that the Bolsheviks would stay in Power only if the war could be ended quickly. * The result was the harsh treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 How did the communists win the civil war? There were three sides to the civil war, but two main ones. The reds and the whites. The Reds: The Bolsheviks or Communists (Red was the colour of Communism). The Whites: All the opponents of the Bolsheviks -tsarists and nobles, middle-class constitutional democrats, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. The whites got their name from the white uniforms worn by the Tsarist officers. This meant that the Whites were always associated with the Tsar and the old system of government. The Greens: Independent groups of nationalists, peasants or bandits who roamed Russia at this time. They fought anyone and raided villages and towns. The most famous was the Ukrainian nationalist, Nestor Makno, who shared his booty with local peasants. Geographical Factors Reds * They held the central area of western Russia, which contained most of the large industrial canters able o produce munitions and war supplies. * They had control of the railway lines, which connected Petrograd and Moscow to the rest of the country. This meant that they could send soldiers and munitions quickly to any place in the battle area. Whites * They were scattered around this central area, often with hundreds of miles separating the different armies. * Communications were difficult that is, if the generals wanted to communicate. Aims Reds * The red only really had on aim, which was to stay in power so that they could build up the new Socialist society. Whites * The many people that made up the whites had some different aims, some of them wanted to tsar back, some a military Dictator; others wanted revolutionary change. The only aim they had been in common was to defeat the Bolsheviks; they only agreed on little less. Leadership and unity Reds * Leader wise the reds had a great one, Trotsky. He built up the red army from nothing, he brought in conscription for men over eighteen years of age, he introduced nearly over 50,000 experienced former Tsarists officers and he appointed political Commissars fanatical Bolsheviks to each unit of men to make sure the officers and soldiers carried out their orders. * Trotsky was personally very courageous. He had a special train which transported him around his army of hand picked soldiers to the places where fighting was difficult. Whites * The whites didnt really have good leaders, often the commanders were cruel, treated their men with disrespect and set a bad example, by doing stuff like drinking and taking drugs * The white generals did not trust each other and would not re-ordinate their attacks. This then allowed the reds to pick of the white army one by one. * The whites had problems inside their armies too. There was often fighting and squabbling because groups had different aims and beliefs. It was particularly hard for revolutionaries to co-operate with the supporters of the Tsar. How Important was the role of Trotsky * Leon Trotsky played a very important role in the 1917 Russian Revolution, together with Lenin. * He played an important role in rising up the Red Army, which with out the revolution would have been crushed. * He was very strict and stated that every scoundrel who incited anyone to retreat, to desert, or not to fulfil a military order, will be shot Every soldier of the Red army who voluntarily deserts his post will be shot. Those guilty of harbouring deserters are liable to be shot. * He gave a good impression to his people, by arriving with a train, a famous train that had been speeding to and fro along the different fronts. The train contained excellent facilities. What Happened to Tsar and his Family * After his abdication in March 1917, the Tsar and his family were held under house arrest just outside st. Petersburg * There were moved to Tobolsk in Siberia, then sent to Ekaterinburg in the Urals, where they were held by the Reds in the house of a family called Ipatiev * Tsar presented a continuing problem for the reds. If he escaped he might help unite the White forces; if executed, he could become a martyr. * But it seemed, when the white forces closed in on Ekaterinburg in the summer of 1918, it seemed that the decision was to kill him. * How successful was Lenin in transforming Russia by 1924 There is certainly an element that Russia was transformed by 1924, certainly top an extent in terms of industry, agriculture, political and socio-economic factors. However, Due to Lenins death in 1924, with the resulting power struggle and emergence of Stalin as dictator, put together with Stalins claim that in 1934 that Russia is fifty to a hundred years behind the westernised countries, we have 10 years to close that gap. There is certainly an argument that the transformations within Russia by 1924 were minimal, especially as the Bolsheviks were trying to establish power in the years stemming form the revolution in 1917 Lenins death in 1924. Lenin knew that he had to do something to improve the economic situation in Russia. If he did not, the Communists would not survive. In 1921, he introduced a New Economic Policy (NEP). He had the idea that the NEP would give the Soviet Union a Breathing space to get back on their feet. Many communists were angry about what he saw as a return to capitalism. They did not like the idea that making a profit was the main power source for smaller industries. They disliked stuff like the fact that the bosses of factories or Kulaks (rich peasants) could hire men to work for them. They did not want to go back to the old days. The communists particularly disliked the new traders who were appearing all over the cities. These Nepmen, as they were called, made all of their profit by buying food and goods cheaply and selling them for more money than they are worth. They were middlemen, who the communists saw as those who made money out of the labour of others. Nepmen also set up restaurants and made lots of money from dealing gin property and gambling. Lenin persuaded the party to accept the NEP for the time being. The majority realised that these measures were needed to reduce industry and get more food produced. The next big step forward was the electrification of Russia. Lenin was keen to see Russia evolve with more innovation and saw electric power as the key to modernising the Soviet Union. He envisaged a great network of power stations, which would provide the power for modern large-scale industry. His aim was to put an electric light in every home to replace every oil lams and candles. Lenin Believed electric power would change things so much that he said, Soviet power plus electrification equals Communism. The first light bulb was fitted in 1928, which was 4 years after Lenins death in 1924. He obviously succeeded in bringing light bulbs and more electricity to Russia, but after his death. The NEP encouraged foreign countries, which had refused too trade with Soviet Russia before 1921, to resume trade links. Western countries hoped that the move back to private trade and profit capitalism meant the failure of Communist ideas. In 1921 an Anglo Soviet trade agreement marked the beginning of increased trade with the West, which gave a great boost to the Soviet economy. There were large-scale exchanges of Western industrial goods for Russian oil and similar products. The NEP Lasted until 19128 and Russia generally became more prosperous. Some of this can be pit down to the period of stability, which followed seven years of war and civil war from 1914 to 1921. But the NEP undoubtedly played a big role in improving the general economic situation. We know that between 1921 and 1928 the Agricultural and industrial production had risen considerable. But infact all that had happened was it had returned back to where it was in 1917; Lenin had not really made a big impact on the way Russia worked. After the civil war, Living conditions were still appalling, peasants hauled for their food, had no proper lighting, food was dreadful and had no washing facilities. Lenin failed to stop Stalin becoming a leader, as well as spread communism out of Russia. Yes, Agricultural and Industrial production had risen from 1921-1928, but there were only back where they had started. Lenin had not made any difference except get them back to where they started. Levels rose, yes, but only in relation with 1917, not prior to war levels, also, Stalins 5 year plans showed us that much actually did need to be done, in terms of industry and agriculture progressed but only took Russia back to pre-war levels.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Malaysian Airline vs Airasia: An Analysis

Malaysian Airline vs Airasia: An Analysis Introduction 1.1.1 The first air service route is conducted between Penang and Singapore during the colonial of British and this led to the incorporation of Malaysia Airways Limited (MAL) in year 1937 by the British government. With the emergence of Malaysia in year 1963, the airline changed its name to Malaysian-Singapore Airlines then to Malaysia Airline Limited in year 1973 and eventually to Malaysia Airlines in year 1987. 1.1.2 AirAsia was set up in 1993 and started up its business on 18 November 1996. The founder of Airasia was a government-owned conglomerate DRB-Hicom. Airasia has incurred a lot of debt and liability at that time and former Time Warner executive Tony Fernandess company Tune Air Sdn Bhd decided to purchase Airasia based on market share price at time of RM1 on 2 December 2001. Mission and objectives Malaysia Airlines vision is to become An Airline of Excellence. Its mission is to become a consistently profitable growth airline through the strategy of business transformation plan and its objective is to flying to win customers and convert the airlines IT operations to deliver fantastic internal customer experience. The mission of Airasia is to form ASEAN brand of Airline Company that is widely known around the globe and to arrive at the lowest cost so that everyone can afford to fly with AirAsia. It also aims to keep its company on track with the latest industry developments and to incorporate excellence practices into their operations that will benefit their customers. The brands or products manufactured Malaysia Airlines Domestic benefits, international benefits, annual benefit travel insurance Malaysia Airlines management team has offer three product plan options: Basic Plan, Value Plan and Premier Plan for domestic traveler, overseas traveler, and frequent traveler. Frequent flyer program Malaysia Airlines has two frequent flyer programs: Grads for Students (Grads) and Enrich. Grads is a frequent flyer program with benefits designed for students whereas Enrich is specifically designed for frequent travelers especially businessman will enable them to gain privileges of obtaining discount or free flights when travelling around the world. Airasia 1.3.2.1 AirAsia Insure Travel Protection is exclusively designed to protect and insure the respective traveler during the duration of flying with Airasia. It comprises In-Flight Plan and Comprehensive Plan. In-Flight Plan was insurance program specifically designed for one-way journey passenger. However, Comprehensive Plan was devised for two-way journey passenger. Types of products Malaysia Airlines offered products such as travel insurance, air cargo services, international and domestic flight services, classes of cabin seats, MAS magazines, MAS souvenirs and value fare packages like Get-the-Deal, and Balik Kampung. Airasia is offering products such as Airasia courier services, Airasia souvenirs, Airasia credit card, Airasia self-produced magazines and Airasia cargo delivery service. Logo and tag-lines The appearance of the corporate logo is designed to be moon kite, with a sheared swept-back look. The word MALAYSIA is italicised to lean parallel with the logo to emphasize on speed as well as direction. The letters MAS bear red clippings in the font style to symbolize the initials of the statutory name of the airline, Malaysian Airline System (MAS). The introduction of blue to the original red to the moon kite logo has national meaning. Moreover, the red and blue divide equally in the middle has a sense of equilibrium. Moreover, the tag-line emphasizes that MH is more than just an airline code; in fact MH is Malaysian Hospitality. Airasia logo is Airasia in italicized form with the characters shaded by red color background whereas its tag-line is Now Everyone can fly. The red color logo is a strong message to the world about environmental problem. Current business development Type of business Topic Sentence: Both Airasia and Malaysia Airlines engaged in trading and services industry. Supporting detail 1: Malaysia Airline is a Malaysia-based company service whereas Airasia is a Thai-based company that engaged in air transportation and their related services. Supporting detail 2: They engaged in operation such as cargo and courier service, goods retailing as well as passenger carrier. Strategies Topic Sentences: In order to be competitive in the industry, Airasia has practised cost leadership strategies whilst Malaysia Airlines(MAS) involved in business transformation plan. Supporting detail 1: Airasia tend to focus on short route to a certain destination in order2 to reduce operating cost. Supporting detail 2: Business transformation program is competitive strategy used by MAS to fight over the big threat such as intense competition, rising cost of fuel in airline industry 2.3 Investor relations Topic Sentences: Airasia and Malaysia Airlines are public listed company traded on the main board of Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. Supporting detail 1: The stock of Airasia and Malaysia Airlines are ordinary shares offered to be transacted in primary market and secondary market. Supporting detail 2: Airasia recorded revenue of RM941 million year over year with a 26% growth while Malaysia Airline incurred an operating loss of RM 286 million in the second quarter of year 2010. Public relations Topic Sentence: Airasia launched AirasiaMegastore, an online shopping gateway for consumers while Malaysia Airlines established PINTAR visit mainly for students Supporting detail 1: Airasia Mega Store open 24 hours every day and it offers a wide variety of branded product at discounted price Supporting detail 2: MAS provide students with academic tour to Malaysia Airlines and tourist spot in Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya because they are concerned about the academic progress of students in Malaysia. 3.0 Marketing strategies. 3.1They market their product by using different strategies in order to gain competitive advantage in the markets. 3.1.1 They use market segmentation strategy to split out the market they want to serve. For example, Air Asia segments the market with different income groups and serves the low income group. However, MAS serve the high income group initially, but because of the emerging of Air Asia, it also moves into serving the low income group of customers. 3.1.2 In order to serve the market they have targeted, they positioned themselves differently to gain a different brand image in the mind of customers. Air Asia is using price or quality positioning strategy. On the other hand, MAS tend to use product class positioning at first, but it changes to a mix positioning strategy of price or quality and product class. 3.2 They compete with their competitors with 4P strategies which are commonly applied in marketing. 3.2.1 They use different price strategies that reflect their positioning strategy and price objective to compete in the market. Air Asia is using everyday low price strategy and trying to compete in Blue Ocean. However, MAS use prestige pricing strategy at first, after then which it change to mixed pricing strategies included meeting competitors pricing. 3.2.2 They use different product strategies, so that they can provide different kind of services to compete. Air Asia provides non-frills services in order to keep the cost as low as possible. While MAS provides excellent and luxury services at first, after which it also come out with low price product to compete with its competitors. 3.2.3 They use different promotion strategies to fight against their competitors promotion strategies. Both come out with a variety of special promotions to attract customers. For example, MAS come out RM 1 for ticket to compete with free seat of Air Asia and sometime the fare of MAS is even lower than Air Asia. 3.3 Advertising methods have played an important role to attract the attention and perform the function of informing, persuading and reminding the customers. 3.3.1 They are involved in different advertising channel like television, newspaper, MATTA fair, sponsorship, internet, radio and even performing social corporate responsibility to grab the public attention. 4.0 Conclusion 4.1 The unpredictable changing environment and fierce competition are challenging their company stability. 4.1.1 The increase of fuel price globally has challenged their ability to control the operating cost. Both companies performance was also seriously affected. 4.1.2The management of resources has to be managed effectively and efficiently to remain agile in the market. Air Asia has to control the punctuality index and customer services which were resulted from the behavior of over save cost. In contrast, MAS has to control its behavior of being uneconomical. 4.2 Recently, both of them have developed so well to proceed to their vision, mission and objective. 4.2.1 They have made a lot of improvement on customer services standard to please their beloved customer. Air Asia has adopted complex information system such as state-of-the-art booking system to process various booking. At the same time, MAS has also invested few hundred millions on passenger service system to shorten and provide faster services. 4.2.2 They have expanded their service world-wide in order to provide more choices to customer. Air Asia has joined VietJet airline from Vietnam, and Jestar airline from Australia to expand their routes. However, it also involves in other business, like hotel sector, online purchase and so on. MAS also expand their routes to more area, and involve in online shopping. 4.2.3 They have performed corporate social responsibility to contribute to the society. Air Asia has supported MERCY Malaysias relief mission in Padang, Indonesia whereas MAS has put effort to reduce the carbon dioxide emission to promote a greener environment. 4.3 They are continuing their effort to achieve their vision and promise to do better! 4.3.1 Both companies do not reveal any specify future plan about 2011. But by referring to previous ongoing plans, we tend to know fairly how and where these two companies will move in their future plan. MAS will continue their steps of business transformation plans 2 in this case, such as maintaining 5 stars quality of services and low cost, attracting more customers, building up the network and capacity through service providing. In the future, Air Asia will provide more low cost journey and increase the regularity of fly. It will also continuously keep the cost as low as possible and enable more people to fly! Prepared by: Betty Yong Siew Ning (0902327) Wong Chin Hong (0902068)

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

My Ideal Classroom Essay

Essay on my ideal classroom set up for elementary school children. My ideal classroom is not entirely, but almost based on fun. My main objective is to have kids come into my class room and feeling that Ms. English’s classroom is a whole lot of fun. Not only do I want my classroom to be fun, but I also want it to be a special place for all of my children. My ideal classroom would have all of the services for all of my children to learn, grow, and thrive. At the same time, I want my classroom to be simple and not too busy. I feel a busy classroom tends to make children feel overwhelmed and more easily distracted. As far as seating arrangements go I would have to be with my class for at least a full week to figure out the configurations of the classroom. I would most likely situate the children in a group format so that they can socialize and interact with each other. I would form this group configuration based on my observations on who works well together and where the distractions originate from etc. My desk would be situated where I could see all of my students. If I were to get a Kindergarten classroom I would probably situate the seats in a group setting or large tables. If I had a third grade classroom I would definitely have a big group meeting mat where everyone can gather around during class meetings. I would also make sure to have comfortable chairs and a big couch for children to grab books and read. I want my students to have a comfortable place where they can read and relax. This furniture would be situated right next to my library area. I would have a huge library for my students. The bigger the library, the more books and you can never have enough books in a classroom. I would also have a computer center in my classroom. I feel that children need many tools in order to learn and grow. Even though a computer is a machine, I feel that it is a vital part of the classroom. I would hope to have at least two computers for my students to work on. Some children do not have access to computers at home and I think that they are a huge tool for a child’s success. They also bring in technology in the classroom which is important. Next to the computer station I would love to have a science center where children can work directly with their hands. I want a â€Å"hands-on† center where children can try new things and learn about animals and plants etc. I think it would be fun for my students to learn and at the same time just â€Å"fool† around with all the neat science â€Å"stuff. † A â€Å"quiet† area is another part of my ideal classroom. I think a quiet area would be very beneficial for my students. I would try and enclose a couple of desks off in a corner with bookshelves for any children who need some alone or work time. My classroom would also have many visuals. I want every part of my classroom to be learning aides. The children should learn from what I put on the walls. I would have many signs up for the different centers and put up the alphabet (in Murray format of course), drawings, pictures, colors, numbers, shapes, basically everything to cater to the grade level that I teach. I would also make sure that I cater to any of the special needs students that I probably will have. This write up of my ideal classroom is obviously not perfect; however, I feel that it is an adequate sketch of how I would visualize my own classroom. I think being in the actual environment, and getting to know your students, along with learning from experience on what works and what doesn’t is what will help me set up my classroom. Daily Routine 8:30-9:00-Morning Meeting/Opening Circle 9:00-10:30-Reading/Language Lessons 10:30-11:00-Reading 11:00-12:00-Math Lessons 12:00-1:00-Lunch 1:00-1:30-Social Studies/Science 1:30-2:15-Movement/Physical Activity/Special 2:30-3:00-Reading/Class activity/Dismissal.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Language of the Neanderthal Essay

It is understood that the Neanderthal was an exceptional thinker and communicator; but there are heavy debates that question whether or not it spoke with a language. Some argue that the hyoid bone of the Neanderthal was too high in relation to its larynx to enable its tongue to form words, while others argue the opposite. With respect to both theories, it was indeed a linguistic hominid. The Neanderthal skull is more similar in shape to the Homo sapien than that of hominids before it; which would make it reasonable to believe that it was able to speak using language. Since it was the transitional species however, it may have been limited in its development of language usage. History of the Neanderthal Before analyzing the arguments discussing the language used by the Neanderthals, it is important to understand what is known about them. Homo neanderthalensis is the last species in the evolution of hominids, which is not considered a â€Å"modern human.† After many years of study, and dozens of findings, scientists observed the differences in the shape of Neanderthal skulls compared to Homo sapiens. They discovered that the brain was smaller, the bones were much more robust, and that the Neanderthal had no chin. The first findings of Neanderthals were in Belgium, Germany, and Gibraltar, in the early to mid 1800s. Some of the most important findings of the Neanderthal were in the La Chapelle- aux- Saints caves of Southern France. The ideas that have come from these rolling hills have both hurt and helped the progress for valid information in Neanderthal studies. In 1908, Jean and Amà ©dà ©e Bouyssonie’s findings led many scientists to conclude that Neanderthals lived strictly in caves. This is now proven to be false. These rumors however, created widespread generalization that made Neanderthals appear vastly inferior to modern humans. One such generalization held sway and brought about artistic depictions of the Neanderthals being sluggish and  awkward creatures. These depictions were created in reflection of the reconstruction of the â€Å"OId Man of La Chapelle- Aux- Saints† by French paleontologist, Marcellin Boule. The bones in the reconstruction of this particular Neanderthal were arthritic; and â€Å"although Boule was aware of the deforming illness†¦his reconstruction apparently did not take it into account sufficiently† (Sommer 2006:213). It wasn’t until the mid- 1900s that paleoanthropologists discovered that the Neanderthal walked upright and wasn’t slouched over at all. Discussions on the Neanderthal Hyoid Bone Despite all of the progress that has been made in figuring out just who Homo neanderthalensis was, anthropologists still have a long way to go. There are many sub-topics about the enigmatic skeletal remains of the Neanderthal that are stirring up heated debates in the world of anthropology, and are still left to skepticism. One of the most controversial is whether it was able to speak with flexible tongue movements that were able to create sophisticated variances in sound; that moreover allowed it to live with social interactions that rivaled the ones we use today. The hyoid bone and larynx position of the Neanderthal compared to Homo sapiens is the most explored aspect of this debate of language. In these arguments, the morphology of the organs and bones in the neck are often times more of a concern than their functionality. The hyoid is a U shaped bone, responsible for harnessing the movements of the tongue. It is located just above the larynx, which is also known as the voice box. The larynx and hyoid bone are positioned in a way that work together to form the words heard among modern day humans. In the early 1970s, scientists E.S. Crelin and Philip Lieberman reassembled the larynx of the Neanderthal and came up with a strong theory that is still agreed with today. They found that the Neanderthal â€Å"larynx is positioned high, close to the base of the skull, and the tongue lies almost entirely within the oral cavity† (Lieberman 1975:494). Lieberman is an expert in the evolution of language and has spent a greater part of his career discussing the major differences between Neanderthal and modern human language. He has written volumes that greatly detail the morphology of the Neanderthal’s mandible and laryngeal bone structure; and has for the most part concluded that Neanderthal language was nowhere near that of modern day humans. Shortly after Lieberman and Crelins’ reconstructed Neanderthal skull, there was not yet an actual Neanderthal hyoid bone found; and other scientists and thinkers in the 1970s disagreed with the way the Neanderthal skull was reconstructed. They based this off of the fact that Crelin was using only five specimens of Neanderthals from the La Chapelle Aux Saints site and also that the culminated skull was reconstructed incorrectly. Many paleontologists believed that the way it was put together would have made it impossible for it to swallow food. â€Å"One cannot help wondering why the vocal tract remodeling concentrates so heavily on La Chapelle when La Ferrassie I is in a much better state of physical preservation† (Carlisle and Siegel 1978: 370).Despite the valid statements made by Carlisle and Siegel that account the pristine condition of the skull that was put together at the La Ferrassie I site; it still did not give any more evidence that pointed to advanced vocal communication among the Neanderthals. Around the late 1980s the first Neanderthal hyoid bone was found in the Kebara Caves of Mount Carmel, Israel. It was discovered in the middle Paleolithic layers of soil that date back to sixty thousand years ago. Upon investigation of the bone, it was discovered that it was nearly identical to those of modern humans. It is important to point out that many of noted paleontologist, Philip Lieberman’s studies were based on comparing the hyoid bones of Chimpanzees to Neanderthals. Lieberman and his colleagues reached a consensus that Neanderthals spoke more like Chimpanzees than modern humans. Chimpanzees have been reportedly able to communicate with very subtle changes in tonality, which indicates there is a primitive language there. That being said, the shape of the hyoid bone of the chimpanzee is worlds apart from the Homo sapien. Whereas, previously mentioned the hyoid was nearly identical to the Homo sapiens’. The chimpanzee’s hyoid bone is much smaller and narrower in comparison to its larynx which is partly what makes its language usage, extremely limited. Not only that, but its brain is much smaller than not only the modern human, but also the Neanderthal. Lieberman’s vast knowledge of Linguistics has made him an important figure in Archaeology, but his morphological ideals that are commonplace have left out some of the more obvious similarities between Neanderthals and Humans. Neanderthal DNA The functions of the DNA structure of the Neanderthal are often times abandoned entirely in the arguments defending their â€Å"lack of language.† Proteins extracted from digs surrounding Neanderthal sites have been analyzed in labs and their DNA structures have given researchers positive reinforcement that the Neanderthal was very similar in its genetic makeup. According to Dr. Julien Riel- Salvatore from the University of Colorado at Denver, â€Å"Genetically, they [Neanderthals] share with modern humans a distinctive mutation of the FOXP2 gene, which seems to be intimately associated with speech† (Julien Riel-Salvatore, personal communication 2011). This same mutation is not exhibited in the Chimpanzee. Neanderthals and Human Breeding There are other debates that coincide with Neanderthals being able to speak, for instance a study that shows Neanderthals may have been able to breed with humans. This is a paradox in that it would rule out the term Neanderthal entirely, because in order to breed, an animal must be of the same species. If this is true not only would it point out that Homo neanderthalensis could speak as eloquently as the Homo sapien, but the Homo neanderthalensis was a Homo Sapien. The differences would be more in the light of behavior, nomadic skills, and tool technology that made the Homo Sapien with a chin able to out-survive the other. Playful notions aside, this is still a very debatable sub-topic of Neanderthal language and many more discoveries will have to be made to prove its total validity. Misleading Theories Other noted archaeologists believe that the large nose of the Neanderthal made it incapable of speech, insisting â€Å"†¦Contrasts in facial morphology probably led to nasal-like vocalizations†¦[and for]†¦advanced hmmmmm sounds† (Mithen 2006: 226). The brief description that Mithen uses to back up this opinion does not prove anything about how the nose may have certainly caused vocal limitations. Its nose was larger in size, but so were other parts of the Neanderthal, and they were no impedance to how it got around. Conclusion Corrosion of bones and more importantly muscle tissue make many aspects of anthropology a challenging field. It is not always clear how the muscle  tissue that once surrounded the skeletons of our ancient relatives operated in relation to nerves, connective tissue, and bones. The Neanderthal is a confusing hominid because of its somewhat smaller cranial capacity, and extremely large skeletal frame. The shapes of its bones are like larger replicas of ours, aside from the skull which is unique in its brow ridge and lack of chin. The conclusions of inter-breeding seem a bit far-fetched. It may have been able to speak as well as modern humans, but perhaps in comparison to the Darwin Finches, its slight variances in structure may have selected it to extinction. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Riel- Salvatore for his feedback on the Neanderthal. I am not a professional analyst in anthropology, and am grateful that he was able to provide me with some of his personal inquiries on the controversial debates centered on Neanderthal language. Works Cited Boellstorf, Tom (Editor) 1978 Additional Comments on Problems in the Interpretation of Neanderthal Speech Capabilities Vol 80 American Anthropology Association, Virginia. Lynch, Michael (Editor) 2006 Mirror Mirror on the Wall: Neanderthal as Image and Distortion in Early 20th- Century French Science and Press Vol. 36. SAGE Publications, California. Mithen, Steven 2006 The Singing Neanderthal. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts. Riel- Salvatore, Julien (Interview) 2011 Original notes from email. Ruff, Christopher (Editor) 1996 Structural Harmony and Neanderthal Speech: A Reply to Le May Vol. 45 Wiley-Liss, New Jersey.

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Changing World Essays

The Changing World Essays The Changing World Essay The Changing World Essay The world is has never been the same. People living a century ago, can never imagine the world we are living in. Over the last one hundred years we have seen extraordinary changes in technology. We had been on the foul smelling four leg  carts and now at the foul smelling gas consuming four wheels. We wished to be like birds flying here and there, now we are visiting planets and isolated areas. We dreamed to go â€Å"Around the world in Eighty Days† and now we communicate across the world  in seconds. The culture of the people changes accordingly with the devolvement in science and technology. From the literature to living styles, every thing changes shape with the passage of time. Changes in our world are occurring at the both sides of the spectrum. With all these developments, there are also some negative effects. Pollution and global warming are the best examples caused by these changes. Change in the living standards should be for the betterment of mankind and to make this world a better place to live. Technology: One single thing which we are unable to predict is the continual change in the technology. Communication: Technology has enabled us to connect with others any where in the world. Today we’re no longer forced to send letters through the postal service, or spare some time to specially meet some one just to talk. Thanks to technology today we can communicate with any one in this world just in seconds. Mobile phones were launched in 1983, changing the route of the world: connecting people around the world. The advent of the Short Message Service (SMS) allowed inarticulate youths everywhere to express their interest. You can imagine this great change by just knowing that in 1992 first SMS was sent and now 6,700,000,000 SMS are sent every day! Media: Today, digital technology is changing this whole concept of â€Å"mass media†. There used to be a known â€Å"news hour† and a place to go to for the news, but now we get the news on the move (mobile phones). Put another way, we used to go to the news, but now the news comes to us. On the internet, people create even more content of their own using blogs (personal websites accepting contributions) and social networking sites like MySpace, Facebook and YouTube. Transportation: In this modern era, technology has enabled us to travel thousands of kilometers in some days or just some hours. People used to travel through wooden carts powered by animals or humans. Today we travel around the world by fuel consuming cars or by flying in planes here and there. Gadgets: People living in the world before us never imagined how the gadgets of today will work. Gadgets are considered to be more unusually or cleverly designed than normal technological objects at the time of their invention. Here are some interesting gadgets; ULTIMATE GAMING CHAIR: This chair is packed with features. To start off, there are 12 vibration motors throughout the chair that are synchronized with the games action, including the PS2, Xbox, GameCube, PC, Mac, PS1, and Xbox Live. For audio only, you can use all those and your iPod, DS, PSP, or generic MP3 player. AUTO-PARKING SYSTEM: Good news for inexperienced drivers is news that Volkswagen’s Touran and Sharan will come with Valeo’s Park4U auto-parking system,  which uses ultrasonic sensors to automatically park the car without scraping across neighboring vehicles. ION AUDIO’S COZ-E: The Electric Snuggie the COZ-E is essentially an electric blanket with sleeves, and it has a control pad with a green light for low heat,  a yellow light for medium heat, and a red light for high heat. Now this is an electric quilt which warms you up any one in few seconds! Education: We have seen a huge change in education in our lives. The changing education changes the world we live. Now there are new learning and teaching styles which have improved the learning of the students. Today students learn from the Multi-Media as well as from the Computer aided learning programmes which were quite rare not so long ago. Today even dumb and blind can also have this opportunity to learn and be educated. The information age has led to the use of computers in the laboratory, as an aid to teaching. New education styles have enabled us to move beyond the blackboard and chalk times of old fashioned school houses. Now, we have the ability to use computers to show students how to better understand math and science. With the improvement of audio technology, we now have the ability to replay historical speeches so they can be listened to by a new generation or even show how they were originally broadcast. Today online college courses allow working professionals to work on higher degrees while working. Online high schools will allow students to participate in the extracurricular activities of their choice while working on their high school diploma. Students who once could not finish their high school classes due to chronic illness are able to finish their classes now. Students will also be able to enter the workforce sooner and start college sooner. Education as we know it is reversing itself in that the student will be able to complete their education at their own pace, similar to the education of students in the one room schoolhouses. Students will no longer be grouped based on age. With computers being able to do some of the work of the teachers, education will become more individualized. Culture: Over the last centuries we have seen extraordinary changes in culture. Culture refers to the ways we live, for example, language, style or fashion etc. Fashion always changes, it never remains the same. So does the literature, if we compare books of present and 100 years ago, there will be a lot of difference i. e. language, style and type of the literature. Literature: We have been listening and reading stories about fairies and a â€Å"happy ever after† and now these fairies are converted into vampires and wizards, for example very famous twilight series and harry potter series. Today, unbelievable fantasies are converted into modern science fiction like Super man, Bat man etc. Today, simple communicative language is preferred and used in our present books but before, classic language was used which was difficult to understand and study. Fashion: Fashion is a general term for currently popular style or practice. The concept of fashion implies a process of style change, because fashions in dress, as well as in furniture and other objects, have taken very different forms at different times in history. Since the beginning of the 20th century, however, fashions have changed rapidly. We would look strange indeed if we wore the styles our great-grandparents wore. Fashion reflects the society of which it is a part. It has been influenced by wars, conquests, laws, religion, and the arts. Individual personalities have also had an impact on fashion. Fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, today it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold in a third. Adverse changes in the world: Our world is constantly changing. These changes affect our lives in a good way; technology has made our lives easier, new education systems has enabled our students to learn in a easy and more effective way. But obviously the world is changing on the both sides of the spectrum. If these changes have given benefits to the people, these are also destroying the systems of the world. The best examples of the adverse affects are our environmental changes and our social interactions. Environmental changes: Social interaction: Change is also seen in people’s behavior after the advanced technology. If we move back to the time when there were no electronic communication devices, like cell phones and internet, people were more close to each other. They had more time for their friends and family, they were not so â€Å"busy† in their work that they didn’t even had time for their parents. But today,