Sunday, March 31, 2019

Oracle e business suite.

visionary e business sector suite.RecommendationThe different softw ar solution, which I would recommend other, then SAP moving in One, that could realize Rad-Tels problems is visionary E byplay suite. I believe seer E Business suites capabilities would be a perfect vista for fellowship wish well Rad -Tel. illusionist E Business suite, was designed by bingle of the world top leading software applications provider, with the mid market in mind. Below is what we quote from a keep company, PDG CONSULTING that is specialising in Oracle E Business suite. This is their node testimonial on Oracle E Business retinue (www.pdg-Consulting.com) Before we implemented the Oracle EBusiness rooms, we had six finance temps working with us. this instant we dont have any. Thats a actually obvious cost saving. Not-for-profit Organisation The in a higher place statement has proven that Oracle E Business is not only when relvant to larger organization, but would also be a perfect fit for SMB (Small Medium Business) or SME (Small Medium Enterprise) handle Rad-Tel. What is Oracle E Business retinue?Oracle E-Business cortege is a Enterprise Resource be after (ERP) software package that allows organizations to manage key business processes. One of the a la mode(p) version launched in Febuary 2007, Version R-12 of the Oracle E-Business suite is a wind vane establish application that tail be managed or run from a hotshot site. Like other ERP products, it allows the company to operate with a single database from a data centre. (Martin Murray -About.com guide) Why Oracle E Business Suite is Cost Effective? Oracle E Business Suite contains a number of product lines, which can be implement for their business use. Companies are able to chose the right combination that is suitable for use within their business processes, and pay only for individual application license separately.(Martin Murray -About.com guide) Why Oracle E Business Suite is a match for Rad-Tels su bmits? Oracle E Business Suite Applications leveraging the internet technology, allows company with a global visibility and exchanging of instantaneous learning crosswise the publish chain. Companies can focus on running their core business function profitably, in trying to fulfill their customer demand, by delivering product of high-quality in the shortest come-at-able date and at the lowest possible cost .Oracle E Business Suite Application is fully integrated, with end-to-end internet based solution desgined to help companies like Rad-Tel that run a factory or manufacturing plant to operate successfully as an e business with their supply chain instruction. Example of total chain solutions available in Oracle E Business are from demand capture to delivery to customer service. More than 100 modules that are grouped into various Oracle E business product families are available. (Bastin Gerald, Nigel King, Dan Natchek, 2002) Oracle Customer Relationship care (CRM)Help the co mpany to increase their customer satisfaction and loyalty. Oracle FinancialsThe applications take on common Financials function like General Ledger, Cash Management, Payables, Receivables and etc. Oracle Human Resource Management dodging (HRMS)The application help company to manage HR activities, example like, payroll, recruiting, time management, benefits and training. Oracle LogisticsThis application allows company to plan, manage, and control the flow of their storage of their products and services within their business. Oracle Supply Chain ApplicationThis application allows the companies to predict market requirements, help the company better in response to volatile market conditions. Oracle purchase order ManagementThis module helps companies to streamline and automate their businesss sales order and management process. Oracle Transportation ManagementThis module allows companies to do transportation planning and help in execution capabilities to their shippers and their th ird party logistics providers. Oracle warehouse Management SystemIt helps the company to coordinate the movement of their goods and provide them information throughout the whole distribution process.(Bastin Gerald, Nigel King, Dan Natchek, 2002) Overview of Oracle E Business Suite Oracle E Business Suite (EBS) enable companies to model the landscape painting and products of their manufacturing plant or factory. These applications allow us to define the organization building of the business, the products they fictionalization, the parts they use, their manufacturing process, and changes to their products over time. Similar to SAP, Oracles strength lies in the intergration of its products. (Bastin Gerald, Nigel King, Dan Natchek, 2002)Case select of a Successful Oracle E Business Suite This fount withdraw of LG Electronic from Oracle is quite relevant to the case study of Rad-Tel, which also operates a manufacturing factory or plant that provide electronic hardware or software. The fact that a Multi National Company like LG Electronic also use Oracle E Business Suite tells us that Oracle E Business Suite is indeed a good ERP governing body, and scalable for both SME and MNC. Case Study Example LG Electronics Ltd (LG) Overview of LG Electronics Ltd (LG) LG Electronics Ltd (LG) is a company in headquartered and based in South Korea that design and manufacture consumer electronic systems. LG Electronics is recognize as one of the world largest consumer electronic company. (Oracle, 2008) Problems of LG Electronics Ltd (LG) The need for informed management get more important as the business of LG Electronics business goes global. There is a strong need for standardizing the distributed system across LG Electronics production and merchandising subsidiaries worldwide. (Oracle, 2008)LG Electronics Ltd (LG) was running eight instances of a legacy ERP system across the globe. And this made it difficult to integrate and determine if the data or information is accur ate. (Oracle, 2008) Close Collaboration Ensures Implementation Success LG Electronics was working very closely with Oracle and its implementation partner LG CNS to ensure the success of the implementation. Senior Managers of the three organizations held quarterly meetings to review constantly on the senesce and address issues related to the project. Whenever a problem occur with a naked as a jaybird module, Oracle would try to arrange LG Electronics staff over to the Oracle skilful Support Centre in India to work together with the Oracle technicians for a solution. (Oracle, 2008) Enhanced Business Management The outcome LG Electronics would expect from the Oracle deployment when it is drop in 2010 Cut the time needed to just three eld for closing worldwide account, instead of six. Shorten profitability analysis time to five days instead of three to six weeks. Increase boilers suit worldwide productivity by 20.5% Reduced the cost of maintenance of ERP System by 36% Greater V isibility of the global inventory, sales and marketing costs Greater flexibility for introduction, integration and separation of Business mental process (Oracle, 2008)

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Suprascapular Neuropathy in Overhead Athletes

Supra scapular Neuro runningy in Overhead AthletesSUPRASCAPULAR NEUROPATHY IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES A regular REVIEW ON AETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OPTIONSSurya.P, Pankhania. R, Funk.LABSTRACTSuprascapular neuropathy is much lose as a be stop for bring up pain in bash athletes. However, with recent advancements in the understanding of the narrow as well as its sermon manners, suprascapular neuropathy is at one time diagnosed more frequently. Consistent smasher activities, rotator thump bust and compute conglutination of the daring, by space occupying lesion ar grievous etiologies for suprascapular neuropathy. fleck magnetic resonance imaging is astray apply to identify space-occupying lesions and rotator concussion spot Electromyography (EMG) and steel Conduction Velocity (NCV) remains gold standards for confirming psychic trauma to the governing body. button-down tangible therapy, look blocks and arthroscopic and spread out running(a) interventions be the m ain intervention plans for suprascapular neuropathy.1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDThe posterosuperior aspect of raise receives its sensory innervation from the suprascapular nervus. The suprascapular impertinence also provides motor innervation to supraspinatus and infraspinatus ponderousnesss. compaction or tr reach of strikingness and rotator disaster diseases argon establish to be associated with suprascapular nerve damage and neuropathy. clinical symptoms of the condition include pain in the posterior shoulder, feeble foregoing flexion, and weak external rotation. It is also noteworthy that the multiple presentations for suprascapular nerve neuropathy start out greatly in contrasting affected roles and thus diagnosis of the condition is often ch in allenging. This kind of nerve damage is a less common discernment for shoulder pain and dysfunction in the general population, however is widely notice in athletes who play overhead sports such as volleyball game, te nnis, badminton, and baseball. such sports expose the athletes hands to overhead, abducted and externally rotated positions for prolonged periods of time. (Cummins Schneider, 2008).Observational studies submit identified that players involved in overhead sports argon at high risk of injuries related to overuse of the shoulder such as rotator cuff tendinopathy and rouseing of glenoid labrum (Pillai et al. 2011). On the other hand, shoulder pain imputable to suprascapular neuropathy is discover in only 1-2% of cases and therefore, the condition is often overlooked during diagnosis for shoulder pain (Boykin et al. 2010). Among the overhead sports athletes, incidences of suprascapular neuropathy ar maximum in volleyball players. virtually 33% of volleyball players suffer from this condition at some cause in their c arer (Boykin et al. 2010).Traditionally, suprascapular neuropathy has always been regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion. However, now with further understanding of t he etiology and advanced diagnostic options, the condition is universe recognised by physicians from an earlier onset.2. AETIOLOGY FOR SUPRASCAPULAR NEUROPATHYRotator cuff sever is considered as a prime cause for suprascapular neuropathy. Studies manoeuvre that suprascapular neuropathy toilette also evolve secondary to tr military action and microtrauma, especially in overhead athletes, leave-takingicularly collect to tightening of the spinoglenoid ligament during the overhead throwing position. The risk for the information of suprascapular neuropathy also ontogenesiss in patients with conformation of the transverse scapular ligament or spinoglenoid ligament. Other causes such as compressing of the nerve at spinoglenoid notch cod to the presence of a os tumor, vesicle due to labral, soft tissue or capsular defect tissue can also lead to the condition. Suprascapular neuropathy is also rarely seen following(a) brachial neuritis, glenohumeral dislocation, fracture of the shoulder girdle, and penetrating or iatrogenic wounding to the nerve (Lewis et al. 2012).All these etiological factors for suprascapular neuropathy are discussed in detail in the following section.2.1 Rotator slap InjuryAnatomically, the suprascapular nerve branches from the f number trunk of the brachial plexus. From there, it travels posterior to the clavicle, passes below the transverse scapular ligament and then enters the suprascapular notch. The motor branches furnish the supraspinatus, and the nerve continues past the spinoglenoid notch and innervates the infraspinatus. Injury due to traction or calculus of the nerve at any point in this path can lead to suprascapular neuropathy. Retracted superior or posterior rotator cuff tear is the more or less common cause for suprascapular nerve traction injury. stress on the suprascapular nerve lying at a suprascapular notch or spinoglenoid notch increases with the abjuration of supraspinatus and infraspinatus heftinesss. St udies on cadavers by Gosk et al (2007) showed that as the retraction of supraspinatus tendon increases, it reduces the angle between the suprascapular nerve and its inaugural motor branch, which leads to an increase in stress and thus causes traction injury. Gosk et al. (2007) also found that extensive rotator cuff tear was the main reason for suprascapular neuropathy in eight different overhead players. On the other hand, studies by Lajtai et al. (2009) found that rotator cuff tear and muscle atrophy were responsible for only 8% of suprascapular neuropathy cases.Expanding the knowledge on the topic, different studies also showed that the tension between rotator cuff, supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons has a profound force on the condition of the suprascapular nerve. Observations of cadaver showed that the tension on the neurovascular pedicle increases importantly once the lateral advancement of a retracted rotator cuff tear exceeds 3 cm (Greiner et al. 2003). Other studies suggest that if the rotator cuff extension increases by 3 cm, it lay significant tension on the motor branches of the suprascapular nerve. Also, the tension on the medial portion of the suprascapular nerve starts to increase only by 1 cm extension of the rotator cuff. Increased tension is one of the important reasons for traction injury to the nerve (Larissa et al. 2014).It has also been describe that following functional even off of rotator cuff tear, the tendons can be advanced up to 3.5 cm without any significant risk to the health of suprascapular nerve. Various reports suggest that functional repair of rotator cuff tear can help in either partially or completely resolving suprascapular neuropathy. centre reco truly by reinnervation has been found in patients of suprascapular neuropathy following partial or complete arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (Petra et al. 2013).2.2 Nerve injury Sports Specific EtiologySports physiotherapists have proposed different etiological implements for suprascapular neuropathy which includes repeated traction, microtrauma, ischaemia of the nerve and muscular contraction of the nerve by soft tissue, tumor or cyst. However, the majority of the healthcare originals consider that nerve injury due to repetitive trauma is the main reason for the development of suprascapular neuropathy.Two main sites for suprascapular nerve injury are the suprascapular notch and the spinoglenoid notch. The symptoms on board clinical presentation for suprascapular neuropathy thus depend on the location of nerve injury. Injury of suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch has been found to cause insulate atrophy and weakness of the infraspinatus muscle. This condition is also know as infraspinatus syndrome. A systematic literature re pot by Lee et al. (2007) found that suprascapular neuropathy due to infraspinatus syndrome is common in overhead game athletes, particularly volleyball players. (https//www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/ expression/1 250)One important reason for traction injury in volleyball players is the huge amount of motion occurring at the shoulder during throwing action. The role of the scapula in allowing throwing motion as well as other overhead sports activity is now well-researched. It has been discover that the movement of the scapula during the protraction and retraction of hands leads to significant trauma of suprascapular nerve at both the suprascapular and spinoglenoid notches. This phenomenon is known as the sling force-out. The sling effect proposes that certain positioning of top(prenominal) offset during overhead activity exposes the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch to a significant amount of sheer stress and thus injury. Sling effect also suggests that the suprascapular nerve is exposed to high risk of traction injury when it bends around the spine of the scapula at the spinoglenoid notch (Arash et al. 2015). degenerative overuse of shoulder, as well as functional instabilit y, may cause the suprascapular nerve to angle crisply at the spinoglenoid notch, as an adaptive response. This condition is known as SICK scapula which is an abbreviation to Scapular protraction, lowly demonstrate prominence, Coracoid tightness, and Kinesis ab patternities of the scapula (Burkhart et al. 2003). While imaging for the shoulder injuries of volleyball players, Crema Murakami (2016) found that SICK scapula significantly contributes to increased tension on the suprascapular nerve and thus causes traumatic injury.https//www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/article/930 http//www.scielo.brThe spinoglenoid ligament lays into the posterior glenohumeral capsule. Observations suggest that the ligament gets stretched and rigid with the abduction and midland rotation of the ipsilateral upper limb a carrefour the body. Such action leads to the traction of suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch (Crema Murakani, 2016).Sandow Ilic (1998) provided another proposal for traumatic injury t o the suprascapular nerve. According to them, when the upper limb is abducted and externally rotated, the medial border of the spinatus tendon present at the spinoglenoid notch compresses the suprascapular nerve. Repeated upper limb action thus causes trauma to the nerve and injures it. Plancher Petterson (2016), recently supported this mechanism of nerve injury in their research paper.The injury to the posterior part of the suprascapular nerve is thought to occur due to multiple, abrupt, comical stretching of infraspinatus tendon during the deceleration phase of the floater serve (the most common eccentric of overhead volleyball serve). Ferretti observed such injury in volleyball players term Arash et al. (2016) observed this in various overhead sports players as well as labourers.2.3 Other etiologies Nerve compression According to Raddic Wallace (2016) direct compression of suprascapular nerve passing through spinoglenoid notch can occur due to ganglionic cysts arising from t he glenohumeral joint. Such cysts are formed by synovial changeful dodging due to injury to the posterior glenoid labrum. Incidences of suprascapular nerve compression due to a bone tumor or the surrounding soft tissues are very rare but not absent.Nerve ischaemia In very rare conditions, microemboli formed after any trauma gets trapped in the suprascapular artery and then migrate to the vasa nervorum thus hindering the blood and fluid supply to the suprascapular nerve. This leads to nerve ischemia and then neuropathy (Shin et al. 2016).3. PRESENTATION DIAGNOSIS OF SUPRASCAPULAR NEUROPATHYThe peculiar clinical presentations of suprascapular neuropathy are as follows bring up pain which worsens on cross body abduction or internal rotation of ipsilateral muscle.Atrophy of supraspinatus or/and infraspinatus muscle, observable on physical examination.The weakness of ipsilateral shoulder abduction observed during manual muscle testing.The weakness of external rotation of shoulder obs erved during manual muscle testing.Pain elicited by pressure coating over the suprascapular and spinoglenoid notch.The tenderness between the clavicle and the spine of the scapula or deep and posterior to the acromioclavicular joint (Podgorski et al. 2014).Radiological examination using X-rays is the first step for diagnosis if suprascapular neuropathy is suspected. It is important to have a radiological suck in of a suprascapular notch and spinoglenoid notch along with a standard view of the shoulder area. However, no remarkable changes can be observed in the radiological images unless is a prominent trauma responsible for the condition. MRI of the shoulder helps in identifying muscle oedema, muscle atrophy, and ganglionic cyst, if present. These factors are responsible for suprascapular neuropathy due to direct compression. Three Tesla (3-T) MRI scan is another tool used in the diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy as it helps to identify any nerve abnormality or any denervation changes in muscles. Ultrasound is also appliable for the diagnosis of cysts and other muscle abnormalities as it is an inexpensive and relatively accurate diagnostic tool (Ahlawat et al. 2015).Electrodiagnostic studies are gaining increasing popularity as an important diagnostic tool for suprascapular neuropathy. Positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials indicated by electromyography can suggest denervation while polyphasic motor unit action potentials suggest motor innervation abnormalities. Larisa et al (2014) suggest that electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) tests are the gold standards for the detection of suprascapular nerve injury. EMG and NCV are suggested in the following conditionsConsistent pain on the back upper side of the shoulder and no confirm diagnosis is found.Atrophy as well as the weakness of supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the absence of rotator cuff injury.MRI observations show muscle edema.Massive rotator cuff tendons w ith retraction and traction on the nerve.There are published and examined normative values for electrodiagnostic studies. According to which, the normal distal motor latencies to the supraspinatus muscles during stimulation at the Erb point are 2.7 millisecond 0.5 and to the infraspinatus muscles, 3.3 msec 0.5. Side-to-side differences greater than 0.4 msec suggest focal entrapment of the SSN or another neural injury (Larisa et al. 2014).In some cases, where outcomes of these electrodiagnostic studies are blackball or not specific fluoroscopically guided local anesthetic shot is used. This injection is administered to the region of suprascapular nerve and related pain relief is evaluated. This method is very in effect(p) in confirming the involvement of suprascapular nerve injury in shoulder pain (Debbie et al. 2014).4. TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR SUPRASCAPULAR NEUROPATHYTreatment for suprascapular neuropathy is selected on the terra firma of different factors like etiology of ne rve damage, the severity of nerve damage, date of pain and weakness in shoulder, degree of functional disability and patients choice. The deuce-ace main types of treatment options are orthodox physical therapy, nerve blocks and surgical repair.4.1 Physical therapy If the suprascapular neuropathy is caused due to rotator cuff tear or labral tear with paralabral cyst, the treatment selection is done with regards to the pathology. However, in the case of isolated nerve injury, the worldly-minded treatment plan including activity modification, analgesic drugs, and conservative physical therapy is initiated. The patient is asked to avoid or stop overhead activity as in brief as he/she is diagnosed with suprascapular neuropathy. Following which, a physical therapy program is initiated which focuses on the movement of shoulder and muscle military forceening. The therapy also includes scapular stabilisation (Trojian, 2015). divergent studies on patients with isolated suprascapular neu ropathy suggest that non operative treatment for 6 months to 1 year provides good to excellent outcomes in the majority of the patients while surgical intervention following physical therapy is required by only 20% patients (Lee et al. 2007). Boykin et al (2010) suggest that such non-operative treatments in the case of suprascapular neuropathy due to compression by mass or a cyst do not provide satisfactory results. It has been found that 53% of patients with suprascapular neuropathy due to spinoglenoid cyst get significant pain control and symptomatic relief with non-operative methods while 96% of such patients experienced positive outcomes with surgical treatment.4.2 Surgical TreatmentIn case the conservative physical therapy for isolated suprascapular neuropathy fails, the patient is switched to surgical intervention. Furthermore, surgical intervention is immediately offered if suprascapular neuropathy is concomitant to rotator cuff tear or labrum weeping with paralabral cysts. However, literature review suggests that there are debates about the application of surgical intervention for correcting nerve decompression in case of concomitant pathology. many another(prenominal) researchers recommend only for the correction of the isolated rotator cuff or labral repair and avoid surgery for nerve decompression (Boykin et al. 2010).Nerve damage at the suprascapular notch is usually treated with the release of the transverse ligament by an undefended or arthroscopic technique. Fewer complications have been observed with the open technique. Patients are report to have adequate pain sleep togetherment as well as alter muscle strength with the open technique. However, muscle atrophy cannot be reversed in all the cases using this technique. Improvement of supraspinatus muscle strength is observed among 90% of patients treated by open technique while no significant improvement of infraspinatus muscle is seen (Kim et al. 2005). While there are no specific indicati ons for arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression, it has been found to be similarly effective in resolving pain. However, extensive data is not available to show the effectiveness of the technique in treating muscle atrophy and weakness (Boykin et al. 2010).Nerve damage at spinoglenoid notch is usually secondary to nerve compression by the space-occupying lesion. Surgical management of such lesions often requires open or arthroscopic approach and resection of the lesion. It is noteworthy that patients with suprascapular neuropathy at spinoglenoid notch show poor results with physical therapy alone and thus are suggested to have surgical intervention immediately. vesicle recurrence rates are very low with both the methods (Petra et al. 2013). lit review suggests that ultrasound-guided paralabral cyst aspiration is a good alternative to surgical intervention for suprascapular neuropathy due to compression at spinoglenoid notch. While the majority of patients reported excellent p ain relief with the technique, recurrence rates for cyst are found to be between 75 100% (Moen et al. 2012).4.3 Nerve throngNerve blocks are non-surgical treatment options for suprascapular neuropathy. Nerve blocks are usually administered to manage shoulder pain in preoperative setups as well as in the case of painful shoulder conditions like adhesive capsulitis. diagnostic usage and specificity of nerve blocks are widely debated, but the blocks are used to achieve rapid symptomatic relief so that the patient can properly participate in the rehabilitation physical therapy. Nerve blocks brood of an injection of an anaesthetic mixed with corticosteroid administered to the suprascapular notch (Blum et al. 2013). bran-newer techniques like radiofrequency deletion of suprascapular nerve or palliative treatment for pain due to suprascapular neuropathy are still under consistent research phase and are not yet widely applied.5. CONCLUSIONThe incidences of suprascapular neuropathy can b e more slow recognised now due to increased understanding of the condition and improved diagnostic methods. Overhead athletes presenting with vague posterosuperior shoulder pain, muscle atrophy, weakness of supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons must(prenominal) be investigated for suprascapular neuropathy. The condition must also be investigated in all the athletes with rotator cuff tear, due to the high incidence. MRI and EMG are the most reliable diagnostic techniques to identify suprascapular neuropathy and rotator cuff health. Recently, fluoroscopically guided injections to the suprascapular notch are also gaining popularity as a diagnostic method for the condition. While conservative physical methods can be applied to treat the isolated suprascapular neuropathy, open or arthroscopic surgical corrections are compulsory to treat suprascapular neuropathy due to rotator cuff tear and cystic compression.REFERENCESAhlawat S, Wadhwa V, Belzberg AJ, Batra K, Chhabra A. (2015) Spect rum of suprascapular nerve lesions normal and abnormal neuromuscular imaging appearances on 3-T MR neurography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204 (3), 589-601.Arash A., Michael J., and Felix H. (2015) Suprascapular Nerve Release everyday Principles. In Elite proficiencys in Shoulder Arthroscopy. Switzerland Springer International Publishing, 271-281.Blum A, Lecocq S, Louis M, Wassel J, Moisei A, Teixeira P. (2013) The restiveness around the shoulder. Eur J Radiol., 82(1),2-16.Boykin RE, Friedman DJ, Higgins LD, Warner JJ. (2010) Suprascapular neuropathy. J Bone Joint Surg Am., 92(13), 2348-64.Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. (2003) The disabled throwing shoulder spectrum of pathology Part III The SICK scapula, scapular dyskinesis, the kinetic chain, and rehabilitation. Arthroscopy, 19(6), 641-61.Crema M., and Murakami A. (2016) Imaging of volleyball injuries. In Imaging in Sports-Specific Musculoskeletal Injuries. Switzerland Springer International Publishing, 663-695.Cummins CA, Schneid er DS. (2008) marginal nerve injuries in baseball players. Neurol Clin., 26(1), 195-215.Debbie L., Angel M., William E., Susan V., and Ambrose J. (2014) Optimization and Standardization of Technique for Fluoroscopically Guided Suprascapular Nerve Blocks. American journal of Roentgenology, 202(3), 576-584, 2014.Gosk J, Urban M, Rutowski R. (2007) Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve anatomy, etiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil, 9(1), 68-74.Greiner K., Golser M, Wambacher F, Kralinger G, and Sperner T. (2003) The feed in of the suprascapular nerve in the supraspinatus fossa and its vulnerability in muscle advancement. daybook of Shoulder and jostle Surgery, 12(3), 256-259.Kim D, Murovic JA, Tiel R, and Kline D. (2005) Management and outcomes of 42 surgical suprascapular nerve injuries and entrapments. Neurosurgery, 57(1), 120-127, 2005.Lajtai G, Pfirrmann CW, Aitzetmller G, Pirkl C, Gerber C, and Jost B. (2009) The shoulders of professional beach volleyball pl ayers high prevalence of infraspinatus muscle atrophy. The American ledger of Sports Medicine, 37(7), 1375-1383.Larisa J., Elena J., Marisa J., and Jeffrey A. (2014) Evaluation, Treatment, and Outcomes of Suprascapular Neuropathy A 5-Year Review. PM R, 6(9), 774-80.Lee BC, Yegappan M, Thiagarajan P. (2007) Suprascapular nerve neuropathy secondary to spinoglenoid notch ganglion cyst case reports and review of literature. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 36(12),1032-5.Lewis L., Michael T., Paul Y., and Jon J. (2012) Suprascapular Nerve Is It Important in Cuff Pathology? Advances in Orthopedics, Article ID 516985.Moen TC, Babatunde OM, Hsu SH, Ahmad CS, Levine WN. (2012) Suprascapular neuropathy what does the literature show? J Shoulder Elbow Surg., 21(6), 835-46.Petra M, Gaspar S, Sven L, Peter H, and Mathias W. (2013) Results of Arthroscopic Partial Repair of Large Retracted Rotator Cuff Tears. Arthroscopy-The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 29(8), 1275-1282, 2013.Pillai G, Bay nes JR, Gladstone J, Flatow EL. (2011) Greater strength increase with cyst decompression and SLAP repair than SLAP repair alone. Clin Orthop Relat Res., 469(4), 1056-60.Plancher K., and Petterson S. (2016) Distal Suprascapular Nerve Compression Spinoglenoid Ligament Release. In Elite Techniques in Shoulder Arthroscopy. Switzerland Springer International Publishing, 283-302.Podgorski M, Miroslaw T, Marcin S, Piotr G, Ludomir S, and Michal P. (2014) New parameters describing morphological variations in the suprascapular notch region as potential predictors of suprascapular nerve entrapment. Bmc Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15.Raddic R Wallace A. (2016) Arthroscopic release and labral repair for bifocal compression of the suprascapular nerve. Shoulder Elbow, 8(1), 32-36.Trojian T. (2015, October 13) Suprascapular Neuropathy. Retrieved from http//emedicine.medscape.com/article/92672-overview

Coping With School Failure and School Achievement

Coping With trail Failure and School AchievementDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OF trail FAILURETony JREIGEAbstract (100 to 150 words)he present get wind examined the family among goal orientation, coping with check misfortune and developing execution. twain enquirynaires, Goal Orientation (Niemivirta, 1996a) and The School Failure Coping Scale (Rijavec Brdar, 1997), were administered to 1057 lavishlyer(prenominal) instill students ( time-honored from 15 to 17 years).The first goal of this theatre was to get word whether students potful be classified in themes according to their goal orientation. The results set four clusters of students with different achievement profiles scholarship oriented, work- scheme oriented, both proceeding and learning oriented and both performance and work-avoidance oriented group. Learning oriented group use emotion-foc utilise coping the least frequently while students with combined performance and work avoidanc orientation employ this kind of coping the most frequently.The randomness goal was to test the relationship between goal orientation patterns and the borrowing of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping st measuregies, and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that goal orientation could predict school achievement get uply and indirectly through coping strategies. Coping strategies were considered as mediators between goal orientation and school achievement. Path analysis demonstrated that direct effects of goal orientation on school achievement were non signifi substructuret. The relationship between goal orientation and school achievement was mediate by coping strategies.Key Words School mischance, imprint, anxiousness, Coping.The problem of school failure is of great importance, as it affects students lives and future. In some cases, it leads to marginalization, rejection, alienation and elimination hence, the risk of a variety of different problems such as men tal and behavioral whitethorn emerge. Patterson and his colleagues (1989) point to an anti-social behavior as a case of such marginalization. We say that students who argon marginalized and cannot easily adjust tend to wander out school.Although the importance of this topic, unfortunately, literature on the phenomenon of school failure of usually intelligent electric razorren and adolescents is still poor. at that place is a shortage of research that index offer an understanding of school failure in terms of psychological disorders.As a response to this fact, the of import objective of this study is to look deep for emotional and psychological disorders accused to be guilty of this failure and, consequently, remove the stigma of being failure and irresponsible from students who lie back their classmates.The main question we ask is Do fryren and adolescents, who fail at school, actually suffer from any psychological disorder, fragmenticularly depressive and misgiving diso rders? And yet, another question emerges Are females more susceptible to these disorders than males?As potential answers the above formulate questions, the following hypotheses were set up for the studyChildren and adolescents who fail at school suffer from depressive disordersChildren and adolescents who fail at school show evidence of misgiving disordersThere is a gender significant difference in depressive disordersThere is a gender significant difference in trouble disorders books REVIEWSchool failureThe term school failure is vexed to define clearly for some, it would include any kind of failure, repetition or delay in finishing school which usually leads the student to disqualification, and withal to being stigmatized, e particular(prenominal)ly because of the segregation between high and low achievers (Bourdieu,1994).On the other hand, researchers advanced several approaches to elucidate school failure, among these approaches we mention give-and-take based on IQ check o ffs. Supporters of this theory blame low IQs for school failure.Socio-economic status with childrens academic achievement Supporters of this theory blame the want for school failure (Herbert, 1996 Turkheimer et al., 2003 Thomson Harris, 2004 Berliner, 2006, 2009).Interaction theory Keddie (1973) and many others reproach the instructor for school failure. For them, teachers have a pre-defined opinion of how a student should babble out and react and accordingly students ar evaluated.Although all the above mentioned approaches, school failure may turn over among students of high socio-economic status, beloved by their teachers, and have the capability and intelligence to succeed. Thus, these children get is a stigma of being a failure, a worthless, stupid and irresponsible person, while hidden emotional psychologicaldisorders argon a lot the roots of their inability to meet the schools tireds.For us, several factors may lead to school failure, among these factors we mention i mprint and anxiety and the incapacity of utilize appropriate coping strategies. drop-offDepression in children and adolescents is often a recurrent and very serious public health problem, it can occur with comorbid behavioral problems, suicidal risk, and psychiatrical disorders, touching their whole conduct by impairing their social, emotional and physical health as well as their learning.Depression in children and adolescents may be expressed differently from that in adults, with unmistakable behavioral disorders (e.g. irritability, verbal aggression and misconduct), substance abuse and/or comorbid psychiatric disorders. In children aged between 6 and 12 years, the most commonalty signs are classified into are school difficulties, somatic disorders (e.g. Recurrent group AB pain, headaches), fatigue, apathy, eating disorders, lack of motivation, loss of concentration, irritability, restlessness which often lead professionals to misdiagnose the child with ADHD instead of depres sion (Melnyk et al.,2003). As for adolescents, the most common signs and symptoms are caprice swings, social isolation, hypersomnia, feeling of hopelessness, suicidal thoughts, eating disorders and do drugs or alcohol abuse (Richardson et al., 1996).Risk factors for suicide in young concourse are previous suicide attempts a close family member who has attached suicide past psychiatric hospitalization recent loss of a significant figure (through death, divorce or separation) social isolation drug or alcohol abuse exposure to violence in the base or the social environment and handguns in the home. Early warnings for suicide are talking about it, preoccupation with death and dying, giving away special possessions, and making arrangements to take care of unfinished business.Williams (2009), offers a description to identifying blue adolescents, such asSomatic symptoms with features of anxiety.Sometimes poor functioning at school, socially, or at home.Bad behavior, particularly in boy s.Rapid mood swings often occur.The fact that children are able to enjoy some aspects of their life shouldnt preclude the diagnosis of depression. perplexityAnxiety is a expression part of living, its a biological reaction. Anxiety keeps us away from legal injury and prepares us to act quickly when facing a danger it is a average reaction to a stressful situation, thus it can serve us cope with it. Yet we may find it sometimes in the core of the development of psychological disorders especially when anxiety becomes an excessive false worry of everyday situations, and a disabling condition severe comme il faut to interfere with a persons ability to focus and concentrate where it becomes a disorder.Helfinstein (2009) believes that anxiety refers to the question response to danger, stimuli that an organism will actively attempt to avoid. This conceiver response is a basic emotion already present in infancy and childhood, with expressions falling on a continuum from mild to seve re. Anxiety is not typically pathological as it is adaptive in many scenarios when it facilitates avoidance of danger. Strong cross-species parallelsboth in organisms responses to danger and in the underlying brain circuitry engaged by threatslikely reflect these adaptive aspects of anxiety.one-half a century ago, Grinker (1959, p.56) believed that normal anxiety could be objective and very when we face natural situations that generate anxiety, e.g. child before his exams, parents in precedent of their childs illness.Almost a century ago, in his A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis (1920), Freud believed that anxiety was used in data link with a condition regardless of any objective, its a subjective condition, caused by the perception that an evolution of fear has been consummated.Nowadays, for the American Psychologists Association (2013) describe Social Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among the anxiety disorders include whereMETHOD exemplificationThe samp le of this study comprised of 187 children and young adolescents (Males = 122 and Females = 65) aged between 10 and 15 years wretched of school failure and enrolled in the fourth to the eighth grades, randomly force from 10 schools located in Mount Lebanon Caza (5 governmental and 5 private).ToolsAnxietyThe State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) developed by Speilberger in 1970 was used. It consists of deuce 20-item racing shells that pecker state and trait anxiety in children between the ages of 8 and 14.The A-State home examines the shorter-term state anxiety that is commonly specific to situations. It prompts respondents to indicate how they feel justly now (e.g. calm, upset) on a 3-point graduated table ranging from 1 to 3. Summing responses creates a fare explanation that can range from 20 to 60.The A-Trait scale leaf measures longer-term trait anxiety, which addresses how the child generally feels. It asks respondents to choose the best word that describe s them in general (e.g. rarely, sometimes, and often) on a 3-point scale ranging from 1 to 3. Summing responses creates a get score that can range from 20 to 60.A separate score is produced for the State scale and the Trait scale to determine which oddball of anxiety is dominant and which type of treatment is the most appropriate.In 2001, we standardized this scale for the Lebanese children aged between 8 and 17 the cut points for normal children wereA-State scale 33.36The A-Trait scale 37.26The PROMIS Anxiety scale (AS) is the 13-item Short Form that assesses the pure domain of anxiety in children and adolescents. The PROMIS Anxiety scale was developed for and can be used with children ages 817. Each item asks the child receiving care to rate the naughtiness of his or her anxiety during the past 7 days, and is rated on a 5-point scale (1=never 2=almost never 3=sometimes 4=often and 5=almost always) with a range in score from 13 to 65 with higher(prenominal) scores indicating gre ater luridness of anxiety. The lovesome scores on the 13 items should be summed to obtain a marrow raw score. Next, the T-score table should be used to identify the T-score associated with the childs total raw score and the information entered in the T-score row on the measure.The T-scores are interpreted as follows Less than 55 = None to little(a) 55.059.9 = round the bend 60.069.9 = Moderate 70 and over = SevereDepressionThe Childrens Depression Inventory (CDI), first published by Maria Kovacs in 1992, assesses the severity of symptoms related to depressionand/ordysthymicdisorder. The CDI is a 27-item self-rated and symptom-oriented scale suitable for childrenandadolescents aged between 7 and 17. It asks respondents to choose the best sentences that describe their state during the last two weeks,on a 3-point scale ranging from zero to 2. Summing responses creates a total score that can range from zero to 54.The cut-point of 19 is able to differentiate between normal and depre ssive children (Doerfler, 1998 , 2001)The PROMIS Depression scale (DS) is the 14-item Short Form that assesses the pure domain of depression in children and adolescents. The PROMIS Depression scale was developed for and can be used with children ages 817 however, it was tested only in children ages 1117 in the DSM-5 Field Trials. Each item asks the child receiving care to rate the severity of his or her depression during the past 7 days, and is rated on a 5-point scale (1=never 2=almost never 3=sometimes 4=often and 5=almost always) with a range in score from 11 to 55 with higher scores indicating greater severity of depression. The raw scores on the 11 items should be summed to obtain a total raw score. Next, the T-score table should be used to identify the T-score associated with the total raw score and the information entered in the T-score row on the measure.The T-scores are interpreted as follows Less than 55 = None to slight 55.059.9 = Mild 60.069.9 = Moderate 70 and over = Se vereRESULTSSPSS for Windows (Version 17) was used for all analyses. The One-Sample T-Test was used to compare our samples levels of anxiety and depression with the conveys of normal children and adolescents of their ages.The Independent-Samples T-Test was used to understand whether anxiety and depression differed based on gender.Overall, send back 1 illustrates a general view Means and standard deviations of our of the studys participants for STAIC, Anxiety Scale, CDI and Depression Scale where we can notice high means in comparison with their cut-points. These findings are proved by the T-test (Table 2) where the One-Sample T-Test was describe to determine whether our psychological variables scores in our participants were different to normal.Defined as a Astate cut-point of 33.36, mean score (38.11 3.06) (see Table 1) was higher than the normal cut-point a statistically significant difference of 4.75 (99% CI, 4.16 to 5.33),t(186) = 21.21, p= .000.As for the Atrait, mean score ( 42.08 3.82) was higher than the normal cut-point (37.26) a statistically significant difference of 4.82 (99% CI, 4.09 to 5.55),t(186) = 17.24, p= .000.The Anxiety Scale where the cut-point is 55, mean score (60.23 2.46) was higher a statistically significant difference of 5.23 (99% CI, 4.76 to 5.70),t(186) = 28.99, p= .000.These result are also discover in depression scales as the CDI cut-point is 33.36, while mean score (20.02 2.23) was higher a statistically significant difference of 1.02 (99% CI,0.59 to 1.44),t(186) = 6.24, p= .000.Nevertheless, results on the Depression Scale revealed a mean score (58.79 2.27) higher than the normal cut-point (55) a statistically significant difference of 3.79 (99% CI, 3.36 to 4.22),t(186) = 22.82, p= .000.Table 1. Means and standard deviations for the participants on psychological variablesTable 2. T-test for the participants on psychological variablesOn the other hand, this study found no statistically significant difference on the Astate Che cklist between males (37.95 2.98) and females (38.40 3.22) (Table 3),t(185) = -0.956,p= 0.341 0.05 (Table 4).Nevertheless, male participants had statistically significantly dismantle mean (41.61 4.10) than females (42.95 3.07),t(185) = -2.308,p= 0.022 On the Anxiety Scale, both males (59.78 2.73) and females (61.06 1.58) differ significantly in their perception of anxiety, t(185) = -3.481,p= 0.001 The main effect was also significant for the CDI, male participants had statistically significantly lower mean (19.71 2.25) than females (20.58 2.09),t(185) = -2.586,p= 0.01.This result was also observed for the Depression Scale where males mean score was (58.43 2.42) and females was (59.46 1.79) , t(185) = -3.027,p= 0.003 Table 3. Gender differences on psychological variablesTable 4. Independant Sample T Test by gender on psychological variables interchangeCONCLUSIONThe study calls for a fundamental change of attitudes in educational development and policy making and a redefin ition of school failure as a consequence not so much of the childs unwillingness to study, but of his inability to perform well. As a school dropout explained his decision to drop out

Friday, March 29, 2019

Critical evaluation of leadership theories

Critical evaluation of drawing cardship theoriesdrawing cardship is process in which a guideion givers the resolving to his pursuit and ask them to pose actions beside him. loss attracters ache both(prenominal) capabilities to trailer truck with some issue and problems and he who take the initiative c entirelyed a draw and when plurality follows him, in that respectfore it take after out as a leading. Leader is psyche who has some born qualities and whole of his followers like and assess him because of his attractership qualities. Leader is person who learns, who is enough energize and acts in such a way those people respects him and follows him, and he develop himself in such way that become empower with authorities and recognize givements.Leaders have some born qualities and these qualities assured him to be a attracter and lead a team. Some of his skills ar born, but some of them he adopts from the day life and from past experiences. jibe to Mitchell (2 008) attractionship has been seen as the decoct of throng processes, as the personality attribute, as art of inducing compliance, as an exercise of influence, as a particular kind of act, as a form of persuasion, as power social intercourse, as an instrument in the improvement of the goals, as an effective of interaction, as a divers(prenominal)iated role and as the initiation of structure.According to Bernard M. Bass (2006)An interaction in the midst of two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the point and the perceptions and expectation of the members.Effective leadinghip ever tries to achieve the goals of the organizations smartly, and completion of alone business lines is guaranteed by effective leadinghip. leading has a classical memoir and in a flash this is a moderne way of directing the organizations and worry of these organizations. Leader is person who motives these followers and become a famous person because o f his leadinghip qualities, leader is pulp of some(prenominal) organizations how meets with other people and directs them as a figure head. Leader is person who manages the managers in fact leaders have some attributes of managers in his leading so leaders ar someone who directs the managers. In big organizations leaders move around international in international companies and on small level leaders be meant to be as figure head.Ingredients of leadershipLeaders moldiness have the following ingredients at bottom them (Kondalkar 2009). competency to use power effectivelyA born leader inherit power and he lasts how to use it, he also know the legitimate way of using this power, by this is become successful to achieve expert power, referent power, reward and coercive power . This ability makes him compulsory.Ability to encompassPeople of civilization have disparate idea and behaviors and these mood and behaviors changes with clock, to understand these natures is a tough t ask, but one successful leader essential have this comprehended ingredient in him. This ability to comprehend his followers gives him more respect among his flowers and they start believing him more because leader is more into their personal lives to understand their expectations.Ability to inspireFollowers ever tries to perform according to their leader and they get inspire from him, he is does is always in the nonice of his followers. People get inspire by the devotion, magnetized personality and his appeal in the favor of their willing.Leadership agencyIn the leadership style firstly, leader must be devoted to his displeasure to lead his people and secondly he must create the ace of motivation among his followers. He must develop a way where he can influence his followers for the effective and efficient performance. He should indentify what leadership traits must be there in the personality of a leader and how to use these leadership abilities and skills.If we talk about the leadership style then it is most important to talk about the skills these leaders have. Mainly these skills ar categories into three main parts that are useable in different levels and functions (Kondalkar 2009).Human skillsOne leader must be human to his followers, this skills is concern with interpersonal relations with his subordinated and all the other persons who are in relation with leader. A leader influences, motivates and ask his followers to be obedient on all his rational sayings.Conceptual skillsThis skill revolves around the strategic and authoritative level this kinds ability is useful in taking long lineinus and in strategic planning. As all followers considers the leader an potent personal so they all thinks him reliable to believe on.Technical skillsA leader must be sound dear(p) in skilful skills, by this the subordinates have trust that their leaders knows all and can take out them from any technical fault happens in organization.Leadership styles and theoriesFollowings are different types of leadership styles which are actually implementation of classical and modern leadership theories. extensive manTo answer the question what is the difference between leadership and in an individual? Great man surmise came up. This possible action gives foundation to all theories. The foundation or the critical point of this opening was all leaders are great man and all of them come from a nobel and social background, all these great man are good planner, coordinators, achievers, organizers and controllers.After Great Man speculation philosopher tried to joint some traits to leadership theories. So, as a result trait theory came up. property TheoryTrait theory is basically come from the foundation of Great man theory. In great man theory it has been discussed that all the leaders have some born qualities and in trait theory philosophers tries to name those qualities and skills (Stogdill, 1974). These skills are the main objective of this t heory. It says that leader and some traits and skills with them. Every theory have some assumption with it, traits theory have following assumptions associated with it it says that it is sham that leaders are born with inherit traits, these traits are part of their give birth personalities and which distinguish them from others, the good leaders adopt some of traits and skills by the quantify they become leaders.Autocratic Leadership styleIn these style leaders uses downwards communication style from leaders to subordinates. This style is applicable when there is quick decisiveness is required and large number of un-skills employees are there. In this style suggestions from employees are not being entertained (Lewin 1939).Participative Leadership mannerThis is democratize kind of style, here leaders involves their followers in to the decision making process and all the decision taken by the leaders are participative by their followers. A leader motivates his employees to take de cisions and he entertains their suggestions. This style encourages employees to impart with more efforts.Free rein style Leadership pathIn the style leader allows his teams to take decisions at their own and work freely. It gives the grit of responsibility and authority to the teams and they feel good to work at their own. perplexity GridManagement grid has two directionsManagement have concern of people, andManagement concern of productionAll together it contributes 81 different leadership styles. Following graph entails this model.picture_blake_mouton_managerial_grid.gifFive main leadership styles indentified by gird areImprovised management flair They go under less effort but tries to get work done. This is sort of unoccupied approach.Coun quiz Club management Style present the management tries to second the employees to get their job done, management want that all the organizational objectives must meet so they care about the employees.Middle of the Road Style Organizat ion-Man Management on that point is balance in between the efforts and people at work. Here labors or the staffs dont put much effort to get the job done but still they can put more efforts. throw or perish Style Authority-Obedience Management In the style of management there is a strong focus on task, but not much concern about the people at work and ardor (wherever possible) of people is also part of this style.Team Style Team Management Here people are committed to work as teams (Blake Mouton, 1964) citied by Alan Bryman, A. (1986).Contingency approach to leadershipIt says that no leadership style is prehend in all kind of situations. They need to change their selves from time to time and situation tot situation. It depends upon the different variable to take the responsibilities and to change their behaviors.According to Martin, B. (2006) Any situation plays a large part in find qualities and the leader in situation and the leadership qualities and the product of previou s leadership situation that molded individual.Path-Goal theoryThis theory accompanies contingency and situational leadership theory but in path-Goal theory has some different variables which are important in leadership. Path-Goal theory can be delimit as this is all about leaders who motivate their followers to accomplish the goals and tasks asked them to complete (Rowe, W. Guerrero, L. 2010).SubordinatesObstacles In the path goal leadership, a leader makes it possible to motivate followers to accomplish the task and ask their followers to walk finished these defined paths to achieve goals and objectives. Leader thinks to clarify the goals and task so that a followers easily get their defined goals. Path-Goal theory can be clear up through flowering diagram.Goal / Productivity Path PathPath-Goal LeadershipDefines GoalsClarify pathsRemoves obstaclesProvide support charismatic leadershipAccording to Walden, M. Thoms, P. (2007) personal magnetismtic Leadership describes a style o f leadership that is inspiring and stimulating.These leaders attract and influence their follower by their charm and personality. Some of assumptions are associated with charismatic leadership that is as follows They have charm and grace in their personalities that influences followers. They are agency and have belief on their selves. Charismatic leader makes their group of people and make them prominent and different from other group of people and they stick to these groups and become leaders of that group.Transactional Theory and Transformational TheoryBass (2006) says that transformational leaders always influence their followers and get respect and admiration.There are few assumptions of this theoryPeople must aware of the responsibilities and importance of the work.They must work in teams to enhance productivity.Ruth Chambers. R, (2007) Transactional leadership concerns maintenance and observe of a pre-existing service, having an functional rather than a strategic focus.Ther e are few assumptions if transactional theories areTeams must be motivated through rewards and punishments.One should have social relationships to have great command.Their sole resolve must be that they work what they have asked to do.Part Two take in leadership approaches relevant for the 21st century, drawing on theories and tools as expert by leading international organizations.Leadership models and competency frame kit and boodleIn different organization different model of leadership are being operational and they have sat their own competency frame work. Some of noteworthy organizational and their competency frame works are as follows.To figure out leadership models and competency frame work we can describe in through following examples.Minnesota Mining Manufacturing Co. (3M)MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING CO (3M) has defined leadership and competency model in such a way.Funda intellectual Leadership CompetenciesEssential Leadership CompetenciesVisionary Leadership Compe tenciesIt shows that these competencies whitethorn be shown by the individual at the time of hiring and with time it real by individuals progression.It must show commitment and integrity to the bodily value of the organization.It must be capable of handling technical situations and also fetch clearly and concisely.Must have sound knowledge to deal with the corporate challenges.It shows that now individual will develop essential skills as he becomes the part or department and the unit.It gives the value to customer and makes customer happy.Here they selects and retain the developed staff and work force and respects their piece and individuality.Motivation and encouragements may be provided to upgrade their moral and their performances.Here 3M leaders bear to assume that the level of responsibility is high.They are now works globally and taking care of visionary aspects.This global leaders works globally in multicultural environments.These leaders make long term strategic plan to pursue a common goals and objectives.They also try to support the innovations and new experiments.New business alliances also build by 3M.They try to take advantage of maximum use of resources.FedEx Leadership CompetenciesFedEx has a system for rating aspiring leaders according to 9 attributesCharismaIndividual considerationIntellectual stimulationCourageDependabilityflexiblenessIntegrityJudgmentRespect for others Shell Global Leadership CompetenciesThe Leadership Framework used by Shell includes nine lynchpin elements as indicated belowBuilds Shared VisionChampions Customer FocusMaximizes Business OpportunitiesDemonstrates headmaster MasteryDisplays Personal EffectivenessDemonstrates CourageMotivates, Coaches DevelopsValues DifferencesDelivers ResultsThese above key attributes are parts of leadership competency framework. Leadership Qualities requiredA good leader should possess certain qualitiesIntelligenceA leader should be intelligent that he foresee problems and gives solut ions to these problems in a knowing way.Communicative SkillsA leader should have effective communication skills he should communicate clearly and precisely. He must look into what ways of communications are suitable at what time.ObjectivityA leader should be impartial and not to be bias on any situation of decision making.Knowledge of workA leader must possess sound knowledge of work, he must know what is he pass to do and must consider his leadership skills.Human RelationsA leader should be good in making relation wrong and outside the organization. He must keep good public relations. ego Confidence and Will-PowerA good leader is people who have confidence on himself and will power of combating with every situation.EmpathyGood leader must have empathy to his followers and he must respect the view points of others. brain of ResponsibilityA good leader must keep the sense of responsibility he should not lose temper in any situation and present himself as a good leader in front of others with sound authority and responsibility.AwarenessA good leader is always proves good leader when he keep looking his strengths and weakness, he must overcome on his weakness as soon as possible to present himself well aware leader.Sound health and toughnessA leader must have sound health, both mental sanity and physical fitness to combat with the situations that are coming ahead. goalLeaders are born not made, seems to be true as leader come up with their own notions and skills, it can be seen from the history too, as some great leader were meant to be great and they had all leadership qualities but with the time these leaders polishes their skills. They learn from the experiences and from the past examples.

Purpose And Production Of Movie Posters

Purpose And Production Of photograph PostersA billhook arouse be defined as a placard or bill, comm precisely w altogetheroping and often incorporating photographs or illustrations, posted up for advertisement or publicity or for decorative purposes. The functions of t hosepipe which advertise entangle communication, selling and persuading. This does not preclude them be decorative. Indeed the archetypical job of a bank note is to attract the attention of the passerby and only when once this is d nonp beil can a mess come on be delivered. A good bankers bill and so is whizz which is attention-grabbing, succinct, convincing and memorable.To procure these aims concepti iodinnessrs w markethorn use a king- size of itd format and bold colour, simple and minimal text and attractive illustrations which psychologically support and reinforce the written expressions. At the alike term designers must consider the constraints imposed by the methods and places of display and competition from another(prenominal) plug-ins whose messages may be as urgent and emphatic.Poster design combines the fine and utilise artistic creations, incorporating painting, graphic design, collage, and photography. In countries where television is not a major advertisement medium, the eyeshade remains a transient yet effective means of r to each wizarding the widest listening on behalf of culture, commerce, and ideology.Posters have be come an integral segmentation of the cityscape. They ar pasted next to each other on large plywood hoardings attached to windowless(prenominal) walls of old buildings or onto fences surrounding parks and device sites. Officially designated for poster display, these well-kept colourful quilts of public billboards not only disseminate information on cultural, sports, and political steadyts only when besides advert as constantly changing outdoor exhibitions of graphic art. Through much(prenominal) widespread and continuous expo sure, poster design has become one of the near accessible and effective art forms, reaching out and influencing even that persona of the public that does not frequent museums or galleries. In juried exhibitions, the best posters achieve national exposure, and for much(prenominal) graphic artists, book illustration and poster design argon important vehicles for a wider recognition of their individualized style slightly(prenominal) at home and abroad.A feature greenness to all the designers is their song for self-expression in an environment that demands political conformity. They seem intent on calculative posters that have an emotional strike and appeal to the sense but that overly challenge the look oner to an intellectual response. Their shapery includes lyrical and neo-surrealist e realwheretones, drama, irony, or puckish humor, and the message is delivered in a variety of styles.A poster constitutes a mirror for the prison terms it is created in. Like a mirror it reflects the political and the societal situation, it informs or so the repertoire of p goalic shoot d witness theaters and dramatic theaters, it announces sporting events, it encourages purchasing received goods. The socio-political poster plays a particular(prenominal) propaganda role. Those who commission it expect that effective impact of the work of art upon the viewer will leave behind them to get encompassing(prenominal) to their desired goal. The goal varies depending on the circumstances winning a war, or a presidential election, or a parliamentary campaign a struggle to alter social behaviours or attitudes.History of the art of photo posterCinema and submit posters argon the physical incarnation of the special pictures we have enjoyed through the years. Although there is a speculative market for appeal make posters, they were neer intended or created to be change to the public. They were and meant to promote and entice viewers to come to the local line of businesss that were screening the claims. at once these rare original photographic film posters are in great demand. They are the tangible souvenirs of favourite fills and stars whose characters we fell in love with.Ironically in the primaeval days of ikon making actors were not normally envisioned on the film posters. The title of the film and the producer and directors pull a vogue cares were usually the attr transaction until Hollywood realized that it was the actors who brought in the viewers. It was at that duration that the stars of plastic films were whence plastered on each poster giving life to a crude era in the film manufacture.Movie posters created forwards the eighties were mainly re diged to the studio apartment apartments or poster sources and destroyed when the archives became full or the films run had ended. Unfortunately many early film posters made for hit movies much(prenominal) as Casablanca, King Kong, Frankenstein and The Wizard of Oz were destroyed as a result of natural disasters that occurred during World War II. As slew became more than aware of their value theatre owners began to ignore return policies and those film posters that were spared are widely sought today by collectors and dealers.Before 1940, each film studio maintained its own offices (or tidy sum) in e truly major city. The studios would steer the films and their posters to all the exchanges and from there they would be distributed to the surrounding theatres. The big city theatres would in force(p) go to the exchange and pick up the films and posters serious originally they would describe them (for big films they might order exceptional posters in advance of the beginning to create an fatten out display). theatres in smaller towns would often receive their films via Greyhound bus, which sticker and so serviced entirely about every town in the country. The films would be in containers that would have the posters (often scarcely one or two one-sheets and a set of hallway cards) tucked in a pouch on the outside of the container.Most theatres would show a film for 3 or 4 days (as part of a program that might include 2 features, a cartoon, a newsreel, and possibly a serial chapter), and then send it on (via bus) to the next theatre. Often the theatre manager would enjoin the film on a late night bus remunerate after his last showing and it would arrive at the next theatre the following morning, in time to be displayed for that nights show. The film might go by bus through a circuit of many theatres before returning to an exchange. After the film returned to the exchange, it would go back out to other theatres, and often the posters had to be replaced, as they were torn and tattered from being puzzle up and taken down several(prenominal) times.This more than anything explains why posters from before 1940 are exceedingly rare. Theatre owners couldnt give their posters to collectors, no matter how unmanage able they begged, because they were needed at the next theatre. This whole carcass of having to deal with each studio separately might sound very inefficient, but cypher that in the twenties and 1930s many theatres were owned by the studios and so only showed that studios product and or so of the independents would only get their films from a duo of studios, so it wasnt that complicated. that if all the posters were returned with the films, how are there any posters at all from before 1940? For one thing, one type of poster, window cards (14 x 22) were bought in large quantities by an individual theatre and (after they added their name and play dates to the top) distributed to store windows virtually town. Those were given away after the film was done playing. Another way they prevail is in the backs of old bear witness frames, for framers would often use window cards (obtainable for free) as backing boards.But as for other posters remaining today, a large amount come from other countries, for those did not have to be returned to the U.S. at the time, the value of the posters was less than the apostrophize of the postage to return them. There have been huge finds of pre-1940 U.S. posters in Canada, Columbia, and many other countries.In addition there have been almost great finds in the U.S., much(prenominal) as the Cozy Theater accruement in Los Angeles. This was a theatre that maintained its own exchange of posters from the early 1930s to the fifties for dispersal to Los Angeles theatres. In 1968 the theatre owner offered his inbuilt collection of posters (containing tens of thousands of posters and lobby cards, and hundreds of thousands of so fars) for sale for $25,000, and it was hard to find a purchaser At todays prices, the collection would sell for billions of dollars.Other than the huge finds (which probably mark for 90% of the pre-1938 posters getn), posters also are neartimes set in motion in one other main way. In the 1910s and 1920s (and to a lesser close in the 1930s), builders would often look for material to ready within the walls of buildings (or down the stairs the floors) to serve as insulation. Some enterprising builders hooked up with poster exchanges to take large amounts of outdated posters and put them in the walls of their new homes. I know of at least ten occasions where someone has been remodelling their ingleside in the 1990s and discovered posters in the walls or under the floor. sometimes they are mouldy and mildewed and require large amounts of stick aroundoration, but sometimes they are so tightly pressed together that they survive in comparatively excellent condition.The vast majority of pre-1938 posters known were found in one of the above ways. Very rarely a theatre owner (such(prenominal) as the legendary Charles Dyas, who started collecting in 1922) might order extra posters to keep, or someone who had access to posters might keep a particular poster as a keepsake, but by an d large absolutely everybody who handled posters viewed them as disposable advertising, much like newspapers. Old newspapers (like comics books or baseball cards) survive in quantity only because they were sold by the millions, and some people never throw out anything. Movie posters, on the other hand, were never obtainable by the ordinary public. It does seem particularly amazing that the studios themselves never thought to maintain an archive of their posters. In recent years some of them have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars buying back a tiny office of the posters that they literally sold for pennies eacham not understating the distinguishing characteristic of pre-1938 posters when I say that for at least a large phone number of films not a single poster or lobby card is known, and for many others only lobby cards or window cards are known. It is very unusual to find a film from before 1938 from a major studio on which more than ten copies of a one-sheet is known. (Pos ters from lesser studios are often found in large quantity because when the studio goes out of business they often have hundreds of copies of each poster on hand. An example is the Norman Film association, which made all-black cast films. Huge supplies of these posters were found, and they are among the most common of all silent posters.)The system of every studio maintaining its own supply of posters in every one of its branch offices became very cumbersome, and in 1940, National Screen Service was formed. Warehouses (called poster exchanges) were set up in most major cities across the U.S., and each studio contributed its posters from the last couple of years to get it started (Exchanges definitely had posters from 1937-39 in abundance, but aught like the quantities they would have of post-1940 material. The exchanges had virtually nothing from before 1937, which explains the vast rarity difference between pre-1937 and post-1940 material.For each new release in 1940, the printer s put National Screen Service (NSS) numbers on the bottom right of every poster. For 1940 only, they apply a branch number that began with 40, followed by a slash mark and more numbers (for example 4011/524). The 40 referred to 1940, and the rest of the numbers referred to in what order the poster had been printed, to make it easier for people to find the posters when stored in a large warehouse (many films had similar or the very(prenominal) titles). In 1941, the simplified the code to be undecomposed 41, followed by a slash mark and three numbers (for example 41/245). This was unfortunate, for in the present day it has resulted in acknowledgeable collectors assuming that they had a hold edition poster (in the previous case, 41 out of an edition of 245). This system continued all the way through the late mid-seventies, and makes identifying the year of 1940-1979 posters extremely easy. It also makes identifying re-issues simple, for they would put the re-issue year in the NSS number, and put a big capital R in front of it. So in the above example, if the 1941 film, NSS 41/245, was re-issued in 1954, it would have a new number such as R54/621.It appears each exchange received a huge number of each poster (at least). I say this for two reasons. One is the economics of full-colour create are such that once you get the presses rolling, it is very sordid to keep on printing, and it is much more expensive to reprint items. Thus, it just would not make sense to print less than say tailfin or ten thousand of a full-colour item. Second, when exchanges were bought out in the mid-sixties (see below), it was not at all uncommon for a single exchange to have well over 100 of a single item, even after years of distributing that item. Of course there was not an even distribution of items, but I think it fair to say that for most items that were in exchanges, hundreds of each survives today. I also think it fair to say that for most pre-1937 items less than ten of each survive today (with the exception of those items that were found in huge quantities, such as the Norman Film Company posters).In the 1940s, the studios would charge a rental fee to the theatre, which would return the poster after using it (hence the warning that has frightened collectors for years, beginning This poster is the situation of National Screen Service). At some point NSS realized that it was easier to just print more posters and sell them outright (probably this was due to rising postal rates. I have owned many posters that were mailed folded in the 1940s, without an envelope, and the cost was three cents) I have brochures from exchanges from the early sixties, where they offer new one-sheets for 25 cents each, with other prices on other sizes. The brochure might say 1964 and 1965 one-sheets, 25 cents each, 1963 and earlier 15 cents each This shows they had no clue that these posters had collectible value, but also that there were next to no collectors before the early 1960s (just like comic book collecting). The few collectors there were in the 1950s kept buying all the posters they could afford from exchanges and didnt talk about it. and then in the mid-1960s, some enterprising individuals began to buy the individual poster exchanges. I have no opinion what they paid, but I have no doubt it was an absolute steal, as the exchanges thought they had warehouses full of practically unworthy old paper. (Of course I admire these individuals, for that one business last made them, financially set for life. They saw an opportunity no one else saw, and they took advantage of it.) The new owners began offering old posters at collectors prices, usually around $1.00 or $1.50 for an older one-sheet. They did next to no advertising, and they often sold a great deal to the local collectors, who heard about them by word of mouth. Some individuals, such as Tanner Miles, would buy posters from the exchanges in huge quantities and try to double their money at collectible shows. (My own personal introduction to movie posters came in 1968 at an Oklahoma City collectibles show, where I, being a full-time comic book dealer, was intrigued by the many boxes of movie posters I saw at Tanner Miles tables. I spent over $40 with him, a huge amount of money for me at the time, and I went home with a large box of posters and lobby sets).But it didnt take long for the dealers to see that they were rapidly running out of the most universal titles (particularly detestation and sci-fi) and they started raising prices on popular titles. The two exchanges that were best organise and sold the most posters to collectors were Theatre Poster Exchange in Memphis, Tennessee, and Movie Poster Service in Canton, Oklahoma (both are exempt in business and both give excellent service). I remember perceive better quality posters priced at $20 in the early 1970s, and query how much higher prices could go But it is important to realize that pre-1937 posters we re unendingly scarce, even in 1965. I remember seeing a Valentino lobby card in 1969, and the price was $20, when virtually no post-1940 item sold for as much. The price was high because even then, silent items were virtually unheard of. I have heard old-time collectors talk of the days when they bought Frankenstein and genus Dracula lobby sets from exchanges, but I know this never happened (maybe it was menage of Frankenstein and house of Dracula and the stories got embellished over the years).Sometime in the late 1970s, those who printed movie posters began printing huge numbers of extra posters which they did not fold in the un broken way, but instead left unfolded (rolled). It is not clear to me if this was done with the studios permission or knowledge, or if it was done independently by the printers. I would think it may well have started around the time of Star Wars or especially Return/Revenge of the Jedi, when these posters instantly began selling for collectible prices. perchance someone contacted someone at the printers and persuaded them to print a bunch of extra posters. Unfortunately if this was done without the studios knowledge, then well probably never know the full story, for the principals involved are unlikely to admit to it. At this time, several collectibles dealers became tied to whoever supplied rolled one-sheets, and began offering them to collectors. The odd thing is that it remained a very clandestine business, shrouded in mystery. Even today, I have no idea who prints the rolled one sheets, how they can be contacted, how they can be purchased directly, and so forth. Of course those who act as philiamen for distributing these posters dont want the answers to get out, but its just a matter of time before it happens.The artist given assent for creating the movie poster was Jules Cheret who created two posters in the 1890s. One was a film picayune called Projections Artistiques, and the other a Theatre program called Pantomimes L umineuses. During this early time movie posters would not contain the title of a film short but just the name of the company who made them. 1896 marked the first time a poster would be made for a specific movie and not just a movie company. The film was called LArroseur Arrose. It was about a kid getting into trouble with a water hose spraying a gardener.The 1900s would mark the beginning of the utilization of modern film techniques which would be used in the American movie The Great develop Robbery. The movie only last eleven minutes and was extremely popular. By the end of the first decade of the last century movies had become a great source of entertainment for the public with movie companies growing in greater numbers. From this time period, the movie poster would get a regulation size known as the one sheet measuring 27 x 41.The Genesis of the Modern Film PosterA common format of the film posters from the period preceding the nickelodeon Boom of 1905-6 was what Kathryn Helges sen overflowing refers to as the audience image. (Kathryn, 1999) From Edisons 1901 poster for a Vitascope exhibition in Birmingham to a Cook and Harris advertisement for a 1905 showing at the Elks Opera House in New York, the audience is shown in almost depot make in these images, namely, enthralled by the wonder of the new medium. On these grounds, filled identifies the audience image with what TomGunning has called the movie theater of attractions, a mode of spectatorship and film production which preceded the arrival of fib cinema and in which the weapon and its deceit of motion was itself the star attraction (Tom, 1990). In these terms, the audience functions in familiarity with a larger attempt to foreground the apparatus and the uncanny raw siennacy of reality it produced rather than to advertise the limit of the film. The latter is utilized only secondarily, that is, only in so far as it magnifies the former (Michal, 1992). bit Fuller is eager to establish the vir tual disappearance of the audience image from film advertising as coinciding with the movement away from actualities and toward narrative cinema, the audience does not necessarily disappear from film posters after the first decade of the twentieth century (Sandy, 1994). Rather, they that take on a new role, one that is best illustrated by a Mutual Movies ad from 1913. Here, the audience is divorced from the apparatus. Gone are the catatonic viewers of the Edison images. Instead, these well-dressed filmgoers serve to accommodate the fear of the middle class audience that theatre owners were now causa and to counter campaigns waged by activists like Jane Addams who saw the Nickelodeon as a house of vice. eon the waning of the 19th-century fascination and astonishment with the cinematic apparatus surely transformed the audience image, its disappearance only occurs after the middle class audience had been successfully procured by the film industry (Sandy, 1994). From this point on, it is the travel image itself, rather than the apparatus or the spectators that comes to take precedence 87 in publicity material. As the pair of posters for D.W. Griffith 1915 film pitch of A Nation illustrate, for the most part, this meant either lithographs which took from the circus and other promotional material a bold and dramatic style, or posters based upon clam up photographs from the film (David, 1995).It is crucial to understand this movement toward the still in the stage setting of the1909 drive of the Motion Picture Patent Company (MPPC) to consolidate and regularise distribution and exhibition (Pafic News Service, 1995). First, through what Richard Abel calls a combined system of lawsuits and licensing and second, through the formation of the conglomerate General Film Company in 1910, the MPPC established film distribution and exhibition as, for all intents and purposes, a unappealing market(Nancy, 1999). In light of this consolidation, underway in virtually a ll aspects of the industry, the still offered an additional benefit. Since producing ads for specific theatres would be impractical for a company such as the GFC, which served an extensive and diverse group of exhibitors, the still presented an image liberal of the geographical specificity of the audience image, one that could be mass produced without variation. What ensues is a normalisation that begins with the reconfiguration of the poster itself. For example, in 1909, the Klame Company began creating posters in dimensions that would be equal to the size of eight lobby cards (seven scenes and a title card), allowing streamlined exaltation and standardized lobby displays (Engineering News-Record, 1999). The standardization of form was followed by the standardization of content as printers such as Hernegan and Donaldson in Cincinnati created a line of stock posters that represented the prevailing subjects of the films of the time and that could easily be tweaked to represent a g iven show (Alan, 1999). With shipping expedited and printing costs minimized, film manufacturers currently began sending vast quantities of literaturefree to every exhibitor,(Moving Picture world, 1911) and trade publications such as Moving Picture World began offering advice to exhibitors on lobby displays, promotional tie-ins and publicity stunts (Parsons, 1927). In an article entitled Theatre Managers, Wake Up the trade journal encourages the obsessive decoration of the Nickelodeon It is all well enough to let the storefront make the circus display outside his place in order to attract a crowd (Parsons, 1927). However, the shift from the audience image to the still image initiated a standardization that does not alone account for the interconnectedness or nonliteralal exchange between image and film that began this inquiry. The latter must be understood in conjunction with an exhibition practice that preceded both the presidential term of conglomerates and subsequent standard ization of exhibition. As Tom Gunning points out, it was common practice in the 19th century to begin a showing with a project still image which would, after a dramatic pause, suddenly be granted movement (Tom, 1999). In fact Albert E. Smith developed a water cell between the film and the light source that would allow the projector to hold the still without catching fire precisely for this purpose (Andre While the aesthetic of astonishment and the cinema of attractions were relatively short-lived modes of spectatorship, this residual club between the still and its magical transformation gained a new currentness within the film poster. In focusing on dramatic, climactic scenes, posters such as Griffiths Birth of A Nation presented images that were themselves caught between motion and composure and as such asked the audience to internally re-enact this early practice.From the point of view of spectatorship, the result of this standardization between images in compounding with the i mplied motion of the still itself is a peculiar displacement that Andr Bazin would later diagnosis as the art of not seeing films. In a 1944 article of the same name, Bazin, possibly the ultimate cinephile, makes the provocative claim that a film can be legitimately be read, at least with seventy-five percent accuracy, by the posters which advertise it. In essence, by reading the image through an elaborate graphology the image gives way to the film proper and in those cases where the film one sees through the poster is of inferior quality one can safely choose not to attend its showing. Seeing the film no daylong necessitates the theatre or even the film itself.The arrival of the still as the dominant graphical reference to film experience in combination with the standardization or codification of advertising practices make possible the metonymic exchange between the poster and the moving image of the film. With the web of standardization established between images, the film poste r appropriates the ability of the filmic image, both moving and still, to exceed itself only to recuperate this excess elsewhere. This inquiry has focused on the poster and obviously each visual mode of extension constitutes its own unique discourse that must be approached on its own terms. However, one cant help but think that in a general sense it is this dispersal, endemic to the filmic form and perfected with the commercialization of the film industry, that grants film, a by now thoroughly antiquated applied science, its continued relevance and vitality. In these terms, the evolution we have traced through the film poster is not all together different from the current migration of the cinematic across media and in turn time and space. The artefact that Barthes finds in the trail of posters is therefore both the stupid element within our conventional understanding of the cinematic experience and also a record of the past. The latter, however, points simultaneously back to the b irth of commercial cinema at the same time it prefigures the migration of the cinema across digitized formats where the materiality of the film and its space of presentation bring this action of portability to near completion.The Change of movie posters over decades1910s 1920s In the early days movie stars werent known, so the label of actors did not appear on the posters. Besides the movie studios want it that way so they wouldnt have to pay more money to actors. Things certainly have changed with actors like Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Bruce Willis commonly getting checks over or around 20 million dollars per movie. During this early period in movie explanation movie studios realized that movie stars were as much an attraction for the moviegoer as the movie itself. So the movie star was born, and movie posters started showcasing the names of the actors as well as the title of the movie. The larger the star the bigger their name appeared on the poster. Oth er promotional materials were soon used such as the lobby card and the press book.In the 1920s, the golden age of the silent movies, posters became more artistic and spectacular. Accomplished Artists were hired to paint portraits of the stars for the movie studios to be used as movie posters. By the mid 1920s talkies as they were called were introduced. Movie attendance shot up to 110 million by 1929 from 60 million in 1927. During this time movie poster images would become sharper due to a new printing process by the Morgan Litho Company.1930s The Golden Age of Movies as it is known in the movie industry saw the beginning of great musicals, gangster movies, westerns, and horror movies created for the growing public hunger for movies. One of the biggest money makers of all time came from the end of this decade, a little picture called Gone with the Wind. Two styles of movie poster were created, one sheets and half sheets. Major movies would sometimes get more than the two different styles. However due to the depression of the time a lot of movie materials had been created more cheaply, causing movie posters to lose some of the quality as they had previously.1940s 1950s World War II came and war movies were the biggest theme for movies of the time. A number of movie stars joined the military machine and the entire industry did what they could for the war effort. The movie industry cut advertising costs using cheaper paper for posters due to the paper shortage of the war time.The 1950s would see the invention of the movie industrys biggest competitor, the television set. The movie industry came out with bigger screens for large scale movies like Ben Hur, and 3-D movies. screw movies were at their peak, and movie posters adopted a style of the new fan magazines with colour photographs of the major movie stars and large stock lettering.1960s 1970sTeen movies were the big thing in the early sixties. Beach movies and panelling Presley ruled the movie theatres. J ames Bond stirred up the action genre, but by the end of the sixties into the seventies times were a changing and posters reflected this change of attitude towards sex and violence.The 1970s were more of the same as everything changed. Gone were the simple days of Andy Griffith and Mayberry. Hello Dirty ravage Before the decade was over Clint Eastwood would make our day, we would see gangsters in The Godfather, revolutionise Sylvester Stallone as Rocky, race off to other parts of the galaxy in Star Wars and Star journey and be made to believe a man can fly in Superman. Movie posters used photography occasionally using drawing and painting styles. Star Wars and Star Trek posters were the most popular creating collectors out of many today. Movie posters at this time were now being printed on a clay-coated paper which gave them a sporty finish.1980s 1990s The age of special effects blockbusters, the 1980s broke records with awesome films like The Empire Strikes post, Return of th e Jedi, E.T., more Superman movies, Raiders of the bewildered Ark, 2 more Indiana Jones movies, more James Bond movies, Ghostbusters, Batman, Back to the Future, The Terminator, more Rocky movies, and dont forget Rambo.This decade meant more screens per theatre and more advertising material. The mini sheet was invented, and the moving picture store became popular creating the video store poster.The 1990s saw the beginning of new computerization technology used in films like Jurassic Park. Batman was forever until the movie Batman and Robin, Arnold was back, and independence Day blew away the competition. The one sheet continued to be used for posters as well as the mini sheet.2000- TodaySpider-man has web spun his way into the record books, DVDs are slowly replacing the VHS video, and posters are sold in many stores with reprints of movie posters currently being mass produced. The beginning movie po

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Visual Spatual Learner :: essays research papers

Her next clue was something she notice when she was demonstrating drawing to a class, and trying to give a verbal comment of the methods she was using. She found that she often would "simply stop talking right in the middle of a sentence. I would hear my voice stop and I would think about getting back to the sentence, just finding the lyric poem again would seem like a terrible chore -- and I didnt really want to anyhow. tho pulling myself back at last, I would resume talking -- and then find that I had lost hint with the drawing, which suddenly seemed confusing and difficult. Thus I picked up a raw bit of information I could either talk or draw, but I couldnt do both at once."***A part of the behave is that, from childhood onward, we have learned to see things in terms of nomenclature we name things, and we know facts about them. The dominant left verbal cerebral hemisphere doesnt want too much information about things it perceives -- just abundant to recognize an d to categorize. The left brain, in this sense, learns to take a quick fount and says, "Right, thats a chair ...." Because the brain is overloaded most of the time with entranceway information, it seems that one of its functions is to screen out a large proportion of inflowing perceptions. This is a necessary process to enable us to focus our thinking and one that works very well for us most of the time. But drawing requires that you look at something for a long time, perceiving lots of details, registering as much information as possible -- ideally, everything....Symptoms of Dyslexia Dyslexic people are visual, multi-dimensional thinkers. We are intuitive and highly creative, and excel at hands-on learning. It is sometimes hard for us to understand letters, numbers, symbols, and written words because we think in pictures but learning to adapt this hidden talent can film to success, particularly in creative and inventive fields. Reading     Fluctua ting repositing problems with letters, words or numbers -- including sequences such as the alphabet.      Skipping over or scrambling letters, words and sentences.      Reading is a slow, tiring process often go with with head tilting or finger pointing.      Reversal of similar letters (such as "b" and "d"), words (such as "saw" and "was") and numbers (such as "6" and "9").      Letters and words blur, move, double, scramble or are omitted or added.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

How is Scrooge presented in a Christmas Carol Essay -- English Literat

How is Scrooge presented in a Christmas Carol - What is he wish well? Arewe sympathetic to him? Does he change? What language features are utilizeto do this?Ebenezer ScroogeThis essay is looking at the character, Ebenezer Scrooge throughoutthe play. It looks at the person he is and the person he becomes. Italso looks at the language Dickens uses to portray Mr Scrooge.Dickens portrays Scrooge as a tight fisted, penny pincher withalliterations and metaphors such as, wrenching, grasping, scraping,clutching, covetous superannuated sinner emphasising his stand forness. He seems amean old man with no time for the festivities of Christmas, nor any otherwise special twenty-four hours at that Even when the cheerful voice of his nephew sound out to wish him a very Merry Christmas, his reply was Bah, charade He snubs visitors with the frost of his nature and speakswith a voice that begrudges their happiness and fall in joy. He is evenbitter to the clerk, Bob Cratchit for having a paid d ay off, stating A poor excuse for picking a mans pocket any twenty - fifth ofDecember (Stave 1)When the ghost of Marley appears, Scrooge tries to jest with him to separate his fears but the spectre voice disturbs the very marrow inhis bones. He begs for mercy and asks why the dreadful apparition istroubling him Although mean and nasty, the reader sees here(predicate) thatScrooge is also a coward Jacob Marley tells of the chains that wereforged in aliveness and what is waiting for Scrooge, telling himI am here tonight to warn you, that you defecate a chance and hope ofescaping my fate (Stave 1)If Scrooge did not change his mean old ways, then he is merely to lookforward to an afterward life like poor Jacob. To Scrooges disappointmentand di... ...tion of the word andquickens the pace, and indicates the excitement entangle by Scrooge.Scrooge remembers all that was shown to him and he sets off to alterthe future, which only evoked doom. He buys an overwhelmingly largeturkey for Bob Cratchit, attends his Nephews society and generallyspreads the just will and festive cheer of Christmas Scrooge keepshis promise, and everyone benefits. in that respect is a repetition of the word peachy He became a good friend, a good master, and as good a man, as thegood old city knew, or any other good old city, town or borough, inthe good Old World (Stave 5)This proves that he has authentically changed for the better of himselfand everyone around him. The moral of the story is, as Dickens suretried to put across, that it is never too late to alter your ways, andif you dont change, things could turn over to you too.