Monday, September 30, 2019
For whatever reason people exercise the benefits are worth the pain. The first thing exercise can effect, is your state of mind. Everyone can benefit from this. Someone that has a better state of mind will become less likely to suffer from depression. Another benefit would be to boost one's self esteem. If you look good you'll feel good. The mind is a powerful thing it controls everything, and those who aren't at peace create unmanaged stress. Most people are unaware of the emotional, and physical consequences of unmanaged stress. The second effect exercise can change is one's lifestyle.Exercising can boost your energy. It can improve muscle strength. Muscle strength can help when it comes to doing just the simple daily shores. Laundry, mopping and doing dishes can all become easier to complete after one starts to exercise on a regular. Another great benefit of having a better life style is that your social life will become more active. From dating to parting with friends, you will f ind yourself having the time of your life all from working out. The last but the most important effect exercise would change is your health.Being overweight can cause troubling health problems. Diabetes, and high blood pressure are just two of the main problems overweight people have. Exercising can lessen your chances of becoming ill. Becoming healthier can help a diabetic lower their needs for insulin and can cause one with high blood pressure to have a more stable vital sign. Daily exercise is one of the best medicines out there. It can have you feeling wide awake. Instead of drinking coffee (which can prevent you from falling asleep later, causing drowsiness again the next day) you should walk and keep moving.In conclusion a lot of things can happen because of exercise. Exercise is a benefit that everyone at any age can participate in. Rather it's just going to the gym, walking around the neighborhood, or simply just taking the stairs, you will reap the benefits. I just named a few things that exercise can change but there is a lot a great things that can change after one Starts to exercise. I personally feel completely better after started to exercise. Feel like have more energy, I feel like I can take on the world. So I will continue to exercise and I would encourage everyone to do the same.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Mexican-American War was a war between the United States and Mexico which lasted from April 1846 to February 1848. It stemmed from the United States' annexation of Texas in 1845 and from a dispute over whether Texas ended at the Nueces River (Mexican claim) or the Rio Grande (U. S. claim). The war was the most devastating event in Mexican history, where Mexico lost the modern day areas of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado and Montana. The Mexican-American spawned out of land lust. The idea of Manifest Destiny and the promising lands of California, which were coveted by many European nations, led to a war of greed.Even Abraham Lincoln, then a young Congressman, and Ulysses S. Grant, the future Civil War victorious commander and U. S. President, believed that the invasion of Mexico was not justified. Mexico had rejected a $15 million cash-for-land deal offered by the US. The area included what now covers the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico and parts of Col orado and Utah. This territory was Mexican, but only nominally; control over the area was slight, and open to intrusion. Irritated at the rebuff, the US struck back in1845 by annexing Texas, a territory long disputed and fought over by both countries.Mexico responded by severing diplomatic relations. U. S. President Polk further provoked Mexico by moving troops south to the Rio Grande, a river that historically was considered well within Mexico. U. S. and Mexican troops skirmished across the river, leading Polk to declare to Congress on May 11, 1846, that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the cup of forbearance has been exhausted,Ã¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"American blood has been spilled on American soil. Ã¢â¬ (Source: EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s So Far From God, pages 49-55) The U. S. -Mexican War is the pivotal chapter in the history of North America.It is the war that sealed the fates of it's two participants. For the United States, the War garnered huge amounts of territory and wealth, bootstrapping the fl edgling democracy onto the world stage. For Mexico, the War sent the emerging nation into a tailspin that it is still reckoning with today, one hundred fifty years later. In the United States the US-Mexican War is virtually forgotten, and for good reason, as it is the clearest example of American greed and undiplomatic actions. The Mexican-American War was waged upon Mexico out of pure greed and disregard for international liberty.In conclusion, the United States was unjust in its declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. The U. S. was clouded with dreams of Manifest Destiny. It had a president that was obsessed with fulfilling campaign promises and greed for new land. Polk was looking for revenge for the denial of the proposal for buying California as was evident in his original reasons for declaring war on Mexico. Also the U. S. provoked this border dispute into the two-year war that it became by purposely inciting the Mexicans into a fight. All these reasons are the evidence that the US was not justified in declaring war on Mexico.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Mama plays a major role in this story that recognizes her as a strong, independent woman who cares fully for her family. Mama who is also known as Lena Younger, tries to get her family to live a better future financially as well as a steady fulfilled lifestyle. The money expected for the Youngers brings a great deal of trust issues and thought to see what is best for the family. That is to say, everyone in the YoungerÃ¢â¬â¢s family give their personal beliefs in what should be done with the large amount of money. Mama; however, decides it would be best to use her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s money to invest in a comfortable home where every family member will have space to live in under the same roof. A place where they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to share a bedroom and bathroom with everyone like they have been in the apartment they have been living in for the past time. This woman desires to see her grandchildren have enough play area outdoors so they can invest most of their time in the dirt and p rovide a w... ... middle of paper ... ...or everyone in the household and fail to meet that one major responsibility. Needless to say, Ms. Lena was having to deal with multiple situations that made her realize it was time for a change in the family. As a result, Lena Younger is very optimistic about her possessions and believes that her children can be more positive and useful towards the family as long as they decide to put their family first in everything they do. Mama is also a patient woman that no matter how many times she has to deal with the mischievous acts she acquires from her children, she tends to find a way to manage things in a calm, respectful way. Knowing how thoughtful Mama is about her family and environment, she deserves more than just a few gifts that were given to her by her family. Mama is simply a woman that should be respected as a person no matter how rough she may sound sometimes.
Friday, September 27, 2019
China's middle class - Assignment Example Within the discourse of this study, the role of the middle class in the political affairs and other national revolutions have been highlighted like the most recent protest of 2012 against the expansion of a petrochemical plant in Ningbo city. Furthermore, the study also puts forward reflections on a comparison between the middle class of China and other capitalist countries as well as an evaluation of Chinese middle class and Asian countries. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Middle Class Resistance against the Expansion of a Chemical Plant On October 28, 2012 thousands of Chinese people clashed with the police in an anti- government demonstration against the expansion of a chemical plant- a petrochemical factory in Ningbo city. According to the protestors, the chemical plant would risk the lives of common people while damaging the health of the public because of the increased chances of pollution. As a result of this protest, the government indulgence and concession in the matter indicate its motivati on to meet the demands of the rising protestors (Wong, 2012). This scenario also indicates a leadership transition which may prove to introduce a new rule in the Communist China. Since 1990s, various other similar events of resistance have been occurred in urban areas like Guangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai. Sometimes, homeownersÃ¢â¬â¢ resisted for their interests or emerging middle class stood against authoritarian regimes. Whatever, the reasons were, the ultimate goal was to bring change within existing political framework. In this regard, the role of the middle class cannot be denied at any level. Their role is most often regarded as a significant driving force towards democratization especially in a non- democratic- authoritarian regime (Dolven 2003, pp. 35- 37). So, here the matter of concern is that who is considered the middle class of China and how they are rising to bring forward a change? Who is the Part of Middle Class in China? Basically, middle class of china involves a section of households who have annual income between $10,000- $60,000. While cost of living in this region of the world greatly varies, however, by a rule of thumb a person is supposed to be a part of middle class if he/ she is able to spend one third of his income at his own discretion. The middle class of China is concentrated, mostly, in big cities where educated people can find better opportunities to maintain the standards of their lives. In this way the middle class is enjoying stable jobs at one end like white collar professionals as well as serving in multinationals and some people also offering their services in state owned corporations. Most of the people forming this section of society belong to age group between 25 and 45- the active population group of the society who wants to boost their lives on the same footings as Americans and European nations have gone through. However, this middle class section in China just appeared in the last 20 years because of continuous eco nomic growth and infrastructure development. This economic growth has developed a new social group that can enjoy, relatively, better facilities and higher income. The people of this section can own their property like cars and houses as well. Simply speaking, this group owns a societal stratum that is laying above the ordinary working class, however, still not the wealthiest (Dolven 2003, pp.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Civil and Criminal law in the UK - Essay Example It is impractical to make selection of differences between criminal and civil law unless guided by a selected application of the two laws like safety in work place (Harr 2008). Nevertheless, it is impossible to analyze application of these two laws in relation to work place safety without first understanding the two concepts. A critical analysis of the major differences and similarities of the two laws will be articulated accordingly. The main feature of civil law is that it is contained in civil codes, which are illustrated as systematic and authoritative (Maguire 2007). Civil law mainly contains general rules and principals, mostly lacking details. One of the basic features of the civil law is that the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s major duty is to apply and interpret law enclosed in a code based on case facts (Sanders 2010). This is in light with the assumption that the code regulates all cases that could arise, and when certain cases are not synchronized by the code, the court ought to apply some of the general principles used to fill the gap (Foster 2005). It is concerned with the rights and duties of individuals and institutions towards each other (Omerod 2008). The main feature of the offences focuses on negligence on health and safety of individuals (Maguire 2007). Main civil cases comprise of an action brought by a person against another in order to seek compensation for the offences committed against them (Hodge 2009) . Basically, criminal law is concerned with offences against society in general (Farrar and Mitchell 2008). In this law, crimes are defined as actions committed by individuals or institutions which violate the basic rules and principals of the society. In some situations, it becomes difficult to distinguish between criminal and civil law. However, an important feature that distinguishes the two is that in criminal law the means of demonstrating that actually an offense has or was indeed committed gas to be beyond
Measuring Cancer Cost Behaviour under Prospective Payment System in Clinical Coding - Essay Example Either way, the increased economic disparities and healthcare challenges have necessitated a rational management of financial resources allocated for healthcare service provision. This paper looks at the role of managers in healthcare financing with respect to the functions of the National Healthcare Service. Besides, the paper provides a succinct discussion on the importance of clinical coding in promoting proper channelling of finances for purchasing healthcare services. In particular, this paper examines the role of clinical coding in measuring the cost of cancer care and how such data promotes evidence based decision making for equitable allocation of healthcare resources. According to Berger (2008), healthcare systems are organized in a manned that allows strategic achievement of three specific objectives. The first objective relates to collection of revenue from various sources including government, donors and individuals. The second objective of healthcare system is to enhance pooling of resources from all stakeholders such that the risk of ill health is shared among every member of the pool. Lastly, every healthcare system aims to provide an affordable and accessible platform of purchasing healthcare services that suits the best expectations of individual members of the society. With these objectives in mind, financial management of healthcare resources becomes a central focus at every stage in order to strike a balance between quality services and scarcity of resources as argued by Bodenheimer and Fernandez (2005, p.27). In the hierarchy of the National Healthcare Service, there are several healthcare trusts and public hospitals that work together to deliver health services to clients. Through the NHS, healthcare managers and commissioners are delegated the main duty of ensuring that various service providers deliver quality healthcare within the available financial resources allocated
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Business Management - Work and Private life relating to Motivation and Stress in Organization - Essay Example These needs are divided into higher order and lower order needs. Self-actualization and esteem are the higher order needs, while social, safety, and psychological are the lower level needs (Cherry). Higher order needs tend to be more important as workers move up the corporate ladder. Imagine a new worker starting out at corporation. This person does not have any friends among his colleagues. The individual will be motivated to accomplish social bonds with his fellow workers. Another theory that explains motivation in the workplace is AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s equity theory. The equity theory states that people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received from their work in comparison with others. An example of equity theory in action would be the case of one worker receiving preferential treatment from the boss. The rest of the staff will feel that the actions of the managers are unfair. A third theory of motivation is VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s expectancy theory. Expectancy theory states that motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort/performance relationships and work outcomes (Valuebasedmanagement). Companies that reward their employees for achieving higher levels of performance are aligned with expectancy theory. Due to the pressures of the workplace many employees suffer from stress. Stress can be defined as tension from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities (Schermerhorn, et al., p.409). Stress is an unwanted occurrence because it reduces the work performance of the workers and it negatively impacts the health of a person. Workers can feel either constructive or destructive stress. An example of constructive stress occurs when a person gets a promotion and is starting out his/ her new duties. The person will feel stress because the individual is not accustomed to the new job and the person is overly excited about the opportunity. Destructive stress has a negative impact on the performance and attitude of the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Pitching for Business - Coursework Example The different methods that are applied to the research are applied such that the appropriate data can be collected. Pre-testing is the research market that results to the determination of the effectiveness of the product based on the responses of the consumers. Campaign pre-testing is done with the media such that the budgeting and planning is done to meet the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Post-testing is done in market research to monitor the performance of the brand that the research is about (McNeill, 1990). The preference, the attitudes of the consumer towards the brand and the approach that can be used to reach the brand to the consumers (Cronin, 2004). The process to improve the product and brands of an advertising industry comes about with the quality of the research and the methods that are used in the research (Carroll, 1993). Market research methods improves the efficiency to the company that uses the method. The company are able to improve the efficiency of their market to the consumers since the research back up the strategy that the company uses to market the brand (Graham, 1978). Improving the efficiency of the brand marketing makes a company distinguishes between the success and failure of the company. The qualitative research also helps the company benefit from any coin that they spend (Cronin, 2004). Encouraging innovation is also a reason that makes companies to conduct qualitative research methods. Brand reputation is a major contribution in the development of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand. This makes a company to establish a brand that becomes the leader of the others in a market (McNeill, 1990). Reputation of a brand is mainly contributed to through authority and innovation in a company. The conducting of the research also enables the company to fulfill the vital needs that the consumers may need in the marker (Fisher 1958). This bring about the innovative appearance of the company the tools
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Healthcare Right Or Privilege - Essay Example If the concept of healthcare is deemed as a right, healthcare as a privilege becomes self-evident and contradictory with the definition of right itself. Those, who are willing to argue that healthcare is a right, simultaneously propose a bunch of policies that ultimately turns healthcare as privilege. In this regard, Brian T. Schwarz (2008) says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ironically, those who claim health care is Ã¢â¬Å"a right and not a privilegeÃ¢â¬ support policies that make it a privilegeÃ¢â¬ (p.1). Even both theoretically and ethically healthcare as a privilege are more reasoning than it as a right. Since philosophically the definition of right pivots on the commonality of the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to do and to have anything that sustains them both physically and mentally, the concept of healthcare as a right requires some additional attributes. Healthcare is a Product produced by those in this Field In the first place, healthcare as a right asserts that one has the right to take care of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health to avail themselves of the available healthcare options. Also the basic concept of Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ ensures that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s right must not be entitled to what others produce without their consents. That is, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s right must not harm othersÃ¢â¬â¢ right. In the following lines MA Faria (1997) delineates what natural right is and what a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s role in preserving it is: Ã¢â¬Å"Natural rights embody the concept of individual autonomy and negative rights that are inalienable and inherent to human beings. Natural rightsÃ¢â¬ ¦..like human rights can be exercised by all individuals simultaneously without infringing and trampling on the rights of others.Ã¢â¬ (p.98) If analyzed deeply, it will be evident that Ã¢â¬Å"healthcare consists of diagnoses and treatments by highly-trained medical professionals. It involves sophisticated products, instruments, and tests designed and developed at great investment, effort, and cost by scientists, enginee rs, and entrepreneurs. That is, people produce health careÃ¢â¬ (Schwarz, 2008, p. 2). The pattern of healthcare market in the USA has flourished to the stage at which the status of healthcare as a product has been rather boosted up by the mode the production of healthcare service. On one hand, the US healthcare industry has excelled both qualitatively and quantitatively in the past few decades. On the other hand, healthcare-cost has increased many times, as it is said in an article, According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Americans spent $1.3 trillion, or 13.2 percent of the gross domestic product, on health care in 2000. Since the mid-1960s, health care costs have increased at double-digit levels, far exceeding the rate of inflation. (Barlett & James, 2006, p. 34) In the face of the increasing cost of medical-care in the private, the Health Saving Account was started as a tax advantaged medical savings account in 2003. Health saving account (HSA) is an inv estment in individual health an option differentiated from health insurance cover. In this account the patient deposits savings in order to pay for their health care needs. This account allows people to pay for current health expenses and save for future medical and retiree health expenses on a tax-free basis. The goal of these
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Importance of Matrifocal family in the caribbean Essay The Matrifocal family Is very prominent in the Caribbean. This is noted more as among people of Africans in the regions. Reasons for this diversity, Cultural Retention, Plantation system of slavery, SOCIO economic and the culture of property. Cultural retention, Melville Herkevitts was one of the first researchers to trace the African Origin of the slaves who came to the Americans he believed that despite attempts to strip Africans slaves ot their cultural heritage the practice ot polygyny was retained from the practice. affected by bonding and closeness of mother and child because the husband/ father was somewhat marginal. This pattern remained in the Caribbean society especially about lower class people of African descent. Plantation system, there is the belief that the persistence of the Matrifocal family can be seen as a consequence of the plantation system of slavery, M. C. Smith wrote that under plantation slavery stables families were not given a chance to develop unions of whatever sort, were often broken up as slaves were sold. The unit of mother and child was less likely to be torn apart than a unit of man, woman and child, males were denied family rights which resulted in a system of female centeredness therefore became marginalise. Women now lead their families. It is a well-organized social group which represents a positive adaptauon to the circumstances of poverty. By not tying herself down to a husband. the mother is able to maintain causal relationships with a number of men who can provide her with financial support. The above Information shows that the Matrlfocal family can be regarded as a form of family structure in its own right. It is therefore Important because it shows that a woman doesnt need a man to take care of her and her family, she If fully cable of performing both tasks all by herself. so Matrltocal family Is very Important.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Maintainability of the Current Financial Market Introduction To argue that we are not currently in the midst of a global financial crisis is simply on maintainable, given the saturation that the issue has had in the mainstream media. There is no secret that there is a global liquidity shortage in the financial sector, mortgage assets declining in value and subsequently limiting the ability of financial institutions service their lending and interest payment requirements to investors. As a result many governments have taken proactive measures to increase liquidity in the financial sector and stave off inflation and other negative factors. It is the purpose of this paper to critically analyse the current financial crisis, in conjunction with the sub-prime mortgage issue which rose to prominence in late 2007. In light of the current economic climate this paper will discuss whether implementing a financial safety net will serve to address the pressures that are being placed on financial institutions in terms of their liquid assets and overall econ omic viability. It will also present the main ingredients of a sound financial safety net, and it is important to note that all of these factors must generally be present in order for a financial safety net to function effectively in correcting the economic imbalance which the global economy is currently experiencing. The Current Financial Climate The financial situation at present around the world is not one of economic prosperity and stability. In the last 12 months the world has had to resist the financial crisis of 2007-2008 sparked by the pressures placed on financial institutions as a result of the sub-prime mortgage crisis. Most recently, beginning in September 2008, is a global financial and liquidity crisis which has led to a number of American and European banks collapsing due to insufficient liquid assets to service its obligations to its customers. Essentially the most recent crisis began with the United States government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which were to government-sponsored enterprises servicing the United States home loan industry. This, among other factors, consequently sparked a rapid decline in the value of global stock market indexes and currency indicators, such as the Dow Jones (United States), FTSE 500 (United Kingdom) and the ASX 200 (Australia) to name a few. This saw a rapid decline in the value of assets held by mortgage related entities, leaving them with significantly less equity and liquidity to service their lending and interest payment obligations. Response to the crisis the central banks of many countries took measures to inject capital into the cash flow of the financial services industry. For example, the reserve bank of Australia injected AU$1.5 billion (approximately 3 times more than the estimated need), Indias Reserve Bank pumped in approximately US$1.32 billion and the Reserve Bank of China provided a stimulus package of approximately 4 trillion yuan (US$585 billion). In the United States the Emergency Economic Stabilisation Act of 2008 was passed by Congress and gave the Bush administration the authority to purchase up to US$700 billion of unserviceable mortgage assets in an attempt to maximise liquidity. In the United Kingdom, on 8 October 2008, UK government announced a Ã £500 billion rescue package. All these measures were in an attempt to increase liquidity in the financial services industry, and were often accompanied by reductions in the national cash interest rates as determined by the central banks. In light of the fragility of the current global economic situation, is important to consider the effect of the financial services industry safety net as a mechanism of consumer protection. As this paper will uncover in forthcoming chapters, the safety net often comprises a number of key elements in order to maximise its scope of application and effect. A number of jurisdictions have sought to implement deposit guarantees and similar protection schemes, and the effectiveness and risks associated with these schemes will be discussed more thoroughly in due course. However it is important to note in passing that the current economic crisis plays a significant role in the ability of a financial safety net to function effectively, due to the extraneous pressures which are placed on the economic system as a result of a shortage of liquidity in the global financial industry. This affects every global financial institution from major banks right down to small time debenture businesses. An Overview of the Financial Sector Safety Net It is difficult to confine the financial sector safety net into one concise and succinct definition. Rather one must consider the safety net in light of its many factors. As the World Bank itself points out, are significant difficulties experienced with implementing a safety net, which are appropriately defined in the following passage: Bank safety nets are difficult to design and administer, because they have the conflicting objectives of protecting bank customers and reducing banks incentives to engage in risky activities. In several countries including the U.S., the financial safety net, structured to reduce the vulnerability of the financial system, appears to have had quite the opposite result. Indeed, Kane (1989) identifies the U.S. financial safety net, and notably fixed-rate deposit insurance and belated bank closures, as the single most important factor in explaining the catastrophic Savings and Loan crisis of the 1980s. Similarly, Demirguc-Kunt and Detragiache (1998) find international evidence that the existence of an explicit deposit insurance scheme has contributed to banking system fragility. To restrain bank risk taking, financial safety nets generally rely on two mechanisms: (i) market discipline, and (ii) bank regulation. Bank creditors can exert market discipline by withdrawing their funds, or demanding higher interest rates from riskier banks. In case of publicly traded banks, equity holders can also effect discipline. The above passage demonstrates that safety nets are not effective on their own; rather they require cooperation between all the different classes of parties involved in the financial industry in order to maintain a healthy financial market. However implementing a safety net is not without its risks and, as the above passage indicates, sometimes the mechanisms employed by a safety net programme of them contribute to the fragility of the financial system is not implemented properly and in consideration of the context in which they are to apply. In light of the above this brief has presented a basic overview of the rationale of the safety net in the financial industry and the aims it sets out to achieve. This brief will now go on to explore the fundamental elements of a safety net system, as it is important to consider the effect of each of these individual mechanisms in appropriate detail in order to draw an appropriate conclusion as to whether or not consideration should be given to a safety net scheme to be implemented in a broad manner across global jurisdictions in light of the current financial crisis. Elements of the Safety Net Frameworks for Liquidity Support For most banks and financial institutions the need to maintain a certain amount of rigid liquidity to service lending and interest payment obligations is essential to ensure the long-term viability of the institution, and also to ensure that the bank or institution can continue providing a service to its customers and therefore generate further revenue. Most of these institutions have certain cash reserves available to meet these obligations in the event that the institution becomes temporarily illiquid, however it is important to consider the strength of these measures given the current economic climate and also whether other measures exist in the event that the liquidity reserves of the institution are unable to service its obligations to its customers. Therefore it is important to distinguish between the liquidity reserves which are available to financial institutions during normal operating times and those which are to be relied upon in a time of crisis, and there is a need for a financial institution to consider the efficiency of both of these measures. A common form of day today liquidity reserves banks rely upon is the lender of last resort (LOLR) function, where central banks in most developed jurisdictions around the world have the authority to provide credit support in the event of a bank becoming temporarily illiquid, however still remaining solvent. LOLR actions do not guarantee against banks from failing, but rather serve to protect liquidity shortages in flowing from one bank to another. As the World Bank puts it: This kind of support can provide an important buffer against temporary disturbances in financial markets. LOLR actions may help to prevent liquidity shortage in one bank from being transmitted to other financial institutions, for example, through the payment system. LOLR actions are not intended to prevent bank failures but, rather, to prevent spillovers associated with liquidity shortages particularly in money and interbank markets from interrupting the normal intermediation function of financial institutions and markets. Therefore the purpose of LOLR is to ensure the overall integrity of the financial market, through containing any liquidity shortages to one bank and attempting to prevent it from reaching other institutions. In a time of crisis a financial institution may need to seek liquidity resources from the central bank over and above those that would normally be available to them for day-to-day activities. These emergency lending procedures need to be considered in the strongest possible manner, and the International Monetary Fund has outlined a number of guidelines which should be taken into account in this regard: resources should be made available only to banks that are considered solvent but are coping with liquidity problems that might endanger the entire system (e.g. Ã¢â¬Ëtoo big to failÃ¢â¬â¢ cases); lending should take place speedily; lending should be short-term; even then, it should be provided conservatively because of the situation of the bank might deteriorate quickly; lending should not take place at subsidised rates, but the rate should also not be penal because it might then deteriorate the banks position; the loan should be fully collateralised, and collateral should be valued conservatively. However, at times of severe crisis, it might be necessary for the central bank to relax this criterion or to organise a government guarantees or to arrange government credit, even if the loan is executed from the central banks balance sheet; Central bank supervisory authorities and the Ministry of Finance should be in close contact and should monitor the situation of the bank; supervisory sanctions or remedial actions should be attached to the emergency lending. Therefore it is important to the above factors in emergency lending in order to ensure that the overall integrity of the financial system is not placed under threat through a central bank advancing credit to an illiquid financial institution. Deposit Insurance or Guarantees It is one of the simple principles of banking that, in order for a financial institution to profit from lending products, it must have the liquidity resources to advance to the borrowers. These generally come from term deposits, everyday accounts and other consumer-based banking products, not to mention larger institutional banking deposits. In order for these customers to be able to bank with confidence with a particular institution, it may be necessary for the government to introduce a type of deposit insurance which serves to protect the deposits of customers in the event of a failed investment by the bank. It could be argued that by having all deposits protected by a deposit insurance scheme, a financial institution is effectively promoting excessive risk-taking given that the particular customer may feel they have nothing to lose and all to gain by allowing the customer to gamble with what is essentially free money. Therefore it is important to consider whether large deposits sh ould be protected by such a scheme as, in the event of a payout being required, the deposit insurance scheme may be unable to meet its obligations in a timely and efficient manner, which is said to be a key requirement in order for such a scheme to function effectively. A fine balance therefore needs to be struck between protecting the interests of customers while also ensuring that the deposit insurance scheme is in a position to meet its obligations in the event that it is called upon, and it would therefore need to be well funded. Investor and/or Policyholder Protection Schemes Another key element of an appropriate financial sector safety net is the need for customers who engage in investing through that institution to be afforded some sort of insurance protection, which would otherwise be unavailable under a deposit protection scheme. These schemes would be limited in their application, as they would generally exclude losses arising from a customers poor investment decision-making in the like unless a causal link can be established between the decision and advice obtained from the financial institution in question. The World Bank and International Monetary Fund fully describe the function of such a scheme: Investor compensation schemes generally cover customer accounts in which a range of investment activities defined in the respective licensing laws and broader regulatory regimes take place. Compensation schemes generally do not cover losses on the part of the investor as a result of poor investment advice or management by member firms, although in some schemes, compensation may be available where a causal relationship is established between the poor investment advice or management and the inability of the firm to meet claims by clients. In most jurisdictions, the compensation scheme is statutory in natureÃ¢â¬ ¦ therefore a member institution cannot simply wash its hands purveying financial loss sustained by a customer who invest through the institution, unless it can be proven that the poor decision made by the investor was not induced (either whole or in part) by the institution itself. An investor should be afforded some protection in relation to investment, but should still be in a position to accept liability should they not heed appropriate financial advice. Crisis Management The final appropriate element of an effective financial sector safety net is the building of both an institution and the responsible government to manage a crisis if and when it occurs. For example, high-profile policy committees and consultants should be in place to establish the framework mentioned in the preceding three chapters of this paper, and to ensure that it is implemented in such a way that is effective in that institutions particular context. Financial institutions also need to ensure they have the appropriate resources, both financial and in personnel, to address is particularly important area of policy especially given the current financial climate and the strange places on banks to provide some form of protection to its customers while also attempting to remain prosperous and loyal to its shareholders. The International Experience The financial sector safety net has been met with mixed reviews in various jurisdictions around the world in response to the current economic crisis. This is due to the fact that central banks and governments have encountered a number of problems when seeking to implement features of the financial sector safety net. For example the United States, given the current Wall Street crisis, and sought to implement a safety net measure, however Reserve Bank Chairman Alan Greenspan has stated: The safety net, along with our improved understanding of how to use monetary and fiscal policies, has played a critical role in this country in eliminating bank runs, in assuaging financial crises, and arguably in reducing the number and amplitude of economic contractions in the past sixty years. Deposit insurance, the discount window, and access to Fedwire and daylight overdrafts provide depository institutions and financial market participants with safety, liquidity, and solvency unheard of in previous years. These benefits, however, have come with a cost: distortions in the price signals that are used to allocate resources, induced excessive risk-taking, and, to limit the resultant moral hazard, greater government supervision and regulation. Clearly, the latter carries with it attendant inefficiencies and limits on innovation. Mr Greenspan has eloquently highlighted one of the key deficiencies with the financial safety net, particularly in relation to government and regulatory supervision of banks during its operation. By increasing government supervision on the financial sector, it severely limits the ability for banks to become innovators in their field and seek to implement new ideas to better service the industry. By implementing rigid supervisory guidelines, the government would be forcing financial institutions to conform to set principles which would effectively make all institutions the same, and limit the ability of these institutions to be granted the autonomy required to be innovative in this industry. Therefore one needs to consider whether the benefits of the financial safety net outweigh the costs associated with it. Mr Greenspan also highlights the increase in costs the taxpayer in the event of the safety net taking effect: The usual suggested premiums for deposit insurance are, of course, far from those that would fully eliminate the subsidy that insurance provides to depository institutions and their borrowers and depositors, especially at times of financial crisis. Indeed, to eliminate the subsidy in deposit insurance, the FDIC insurance premium would have to be set high enough to cover the extreme-loss tail of the distribution of possible outcomes and thus the perceived costs of systemic risk. Since so high a rate appears politically infeasible, the subsidy in deposit insurance cannot be fully eliminated. Moreover, no private insurer will be able to match the actual FDIC premium and cover its risk from the extreme-loss tail. Obviously, if premiums were fully priced, the level of insured deposits would be significantly lower. The above passage demonstrates that it is difficult to lower the deposit insurance premiums associated with a safety net programme, while also ensuring that the deposit insurance fund is still adequately funded to meet its obligations in the event is called upon. By lowering deposit insurance premiums, a financial institution would place a significant strain on itself to be able to cover potential loss associated with the extreme-loss tail which Mr Greenspan discusses and recognises as a serious threat. American newspapers have also highlighted the risks associated with deposit insurance: It has long been known that this feature of the safety net induces moral hazard. Because of the reality and perception that bank deposits are fully protected, banks are willing to engage in riskier activities, insured depositors are less willing and able to monitor the activities of banks, and creditors are less sensitive to the risks incurred by banks. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a system that appropriately prices this insurance and the risks associated with providing it. I fully protecting deposits, the government is inviting banks to be far less accountable for losses incurred as a result of mismanagement of depositors and investors funds, and therefore the deposit insurance scheme needs to be appropriately justified and risk assess for can have any significant practical effect in granting customers peace of mind that there investments are protected, given the current fragile economic climate. Other countries such as Australia have moved to guarantee bank deposits in light of the current financial situation around the globe. Particularly, the Australian government has guaranteed deposits up to an amount of $20,000, despite previously stating that moves by other foreign governments to guarantee deposits were uncoordinated. Interestingly, it has been said that the legal and regulatory framework in place in Serbia and Montenegro sufficient to encourage a deposit protection insurance scheme which would serve to appropriately protect banking customers and the financial industry therein. therefore the results encountered the international arena in relation to the financial safety net are mixed, with some systems acknowledging that certain reforms need to occur before the safety net will function effectively, and others seeking to implement the safety net within their jurisdiction. Conclusion In conclusion, and in consideration of the discussions throughout this brief, would be appropriate to conclude that a financial safety net scheme may be appropriate in certain circumstances in order to provide banking customers with peace of mind in relation to their investments. However it is important to note that a safety net scheme does not bring with it guaranteed success, and one must consider the risks associated with implementing such a scheme and their possible contribution to the dire financial situation which is currently being experienced throughout the world. While the rationale of the safety net may have good intentions, it is clear that deposit guarantees and poor crisis management can have adverse effects on the financial market and therefore affect consumers in a negative way when the intentions are all positive. The international experience with financial safety nets is inconclusive. It is primarily due to the fact that underlying financial pressures in particular jurisdictions can have adverse effects on the effectiveness of the financial safety net, and make it difficult for the safety net to be effective in correcting these imbalances. In the case of the United States cost of deposit and investment insurance is simply too high to justify, whereas in say Australia or Japan the benefit outweighs the cost based on sound financial infrastructure and crisis management techniques. Therefore it is significantly easier to implement a safety net system in these jurisdictions, given the sturdy financial history of the Asian markets. The United States present difficult challenge, with the major financial institutions having capital tied up in high risk investment portfolios, such as what was experienced with the sub-prime mortgage crisis beginning in mid-to late 2007. In short, the question must be asked whether a safety net would increase the liquidity resources of financial institutions, which is universally accepted to be the significant cause of the current financial crisis. The short answer is yes, given that deposit and investment insurance should effectively encourage customers to invest with a particular bank given that their money is effectively insured for a certain amount. However this insurance policy is not worth the paper its written on the insurance fund does not itself have the liquidity service obligations should be called upon to do so. This is a problematic situation, and cannot be effectively answered in a simple form. Only time will tell whether the financial crisis eases as a result of governments purchasing bad mortgage debts from financial institutions, and whether the liquidity shortage ends as a result. Bibliography Arner, D.W., Financial Stability, Economic Growth and the Role of Law (2007), London: Cambridge Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Ã¢â¬ËGovernment considers upping bank deposit safety netÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008) http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/10/12/2388583.htm> at 14 December 2008 Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Ã¢â¬ËNo need for Government guarantee on bank deposits: RuddÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008) http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/10/10/2387244.htm> at 14 December 2008 Demirguc-Kunt, A., and Detragiache, E., Ã¢â¬ËThe determinants of banking crises in developed and developing countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1998), IMF Staff Papers 45, 81-109 Demirguc-Kunt, A., and Huizinga, H., Ã¢â¬ËMarket Discipline and Financial Safety Net DesignÃ¢â¬â¢ (1999), World Bank Policy Research Paper WPS2183 Gerda, O., Brewer III, E., and Evanoff, D.D., Ã¢â¬ËThe Financial Safety Net: costs, benefits and implicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2001) The Chicago Fed Letter http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3631/is_200111/ai_n8986952> at 14 December 2008 Greenspan, A., Former Federal Reserve Chairman, Ã¢â¬ËSpeech Ã¢â¬â The Financial Safety NetÃ¢â¬â¢, 10 May 2001, http://www.federalreserve.gov/Boarddocs/Speeches/2001/20010510/default.htm> at 14 December 2008 Herzsenhorn, D.M., Ã¢â¬ËAdministration is seeking $700 billion for Wall StreetÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008), New York Times, 20 September 2008 IMF Ã¢â¬â Monetary and Financial System Department, Operational Paper OP/00/01, Emergency Liquidity Support Facilities Kane, E.J., The SL Insurance Mess: How Did it Happen? (1987), Lanham, MD: University Press of America Marinkovic, S.T., Ã¢â¬ËDesigning an Incentive-Compatible Safety Net in a Financial System in Transition: The Case of SerbiaÃ¢â¬â¢ (2004), Centre for the Study of Global Governance, Discussion Paper 35, http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISNfileid=07ECE3C0-79BF-BEF2-62FF-A5CF5F97D730lng=en> at 14 December 2008 Reuters, Ã¢â¬ËAsian central banks spend billions to prevent crashÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008), International Herald Tribune, 16 September 2008 World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Financial Sector Assessment: A Handbook (2005) Footnotes  Reuters, Ã¢â¬ËAsian central banks spend billions to prevent crashÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008), International Herald Tribune, 16 September 2008.  David M. Herzsenhorn, Ã¢â¬ËAdministration is seeking $700 billion for Wall StreetÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008), New York Times, 20 September 2008.  Asl Demirguc-Kunt and Harry Huizinga, Ã¢â¬ËMarket Discipline and Financial Safety Net DesignÃ¢â¬â¢ (1999), World Bank Policy Research Paper WPS2183, 2-3; citing Asl Demirguc-Kunt, and E. Detragiache, Ã¢â¬ËThe determinants of banking crises in developed and developing countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1998), IMF Staff Papers 45, 81-109 and Edward J. Kane, The SL insurance Mess: How Did it Happen? (1987).  See also Douglas W. Arner, Financial Stability, Economic Growth and the Role of Law (2007), 139-140.  World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Financial Sector Assessment: A Handbook (2005), 105.  Ibid, 105-6. See also IMF Ã¢â¬â Monetary and Financial System Department, Operational Paper OP/00/01, Emergency Liquidity Support Facilities.  Ibid, 106.  Ibid, 107.  Federal Reserve Bank Chairman Alan Greenspan, Ã¢â¬ËSpeech Ã¢â¬â The Financial Safety NetÃ¢â¬â¢, 10 May 2001, http://www.federalreserve.gov/Boarddocs/Speeches/2001/20010510/default.htm> at 14 December 2008.  Ibid.  Oscar Gerda, Elijah Brewer III, and Douglas D. Evanoff, Ã¢â¬ËThe Financial Safety Net: costs, benefits and implicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2001) The Chicago Fed Letter http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3631/is_200111/ai_n8986952> at 14 December 2008.  Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Ã¢â¬ËGovernment considers upping bank deposit safety netÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008) http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/10/12/2388583.htm> at 14 December 2008.  Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Ã¢â¬ËNo need for Government guarantee on bank deposits: RuddÃ¢â¬â¢ (2008) http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/10/10/2387244.htm> at 14 December 2008.  See, generally, Srdjan T. Marinkovic, Ã¢â¬ËDesigning an Incentive-Compatible Safety Net in a Financial System in Transition: The Case of SerbiaÃ¢â¬â¢ (2004), Centre for the Study of Global Governance, Discussion Paper 35, http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISNfileid=07ECE3C0-79BF-BEF2-62FF-A5CF5F97D730lng=en> at 14 December 2008, 17.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Discuss Priestley's depiction of the Birling household and Gerald Croft, prior to the arrival of Inspector Goole In this submission I hope to fully discuss Priestley's depiction of the Birling household and Gerald Croft, prior to the arrival of Inspector Goole. The play is set in the fictional town of Brumley, an industrial town in the North Midlands. It is evening in the town, in the spring of 1912. At the moment the play starts the characters are celebrating the engagement between Gerald Croft and the Birling family's only daughter Sheila. They are all very pleased with themselves and are enjoying the occasion. The house is described as being a fairly large suburban house. The furniture in the rooms is described as being, "good solid furniture of the period. The general effect is substantial and heavily comfortable, but not cosy and homelike." As you will see later Mr. Birling always wants to make the impression that he is better than his guest, or at least is his guest's social equal. The furniture in the house may be another one of Birling's attempt to make the guest feel this way. He doesn't want to make the guest feel comfortable in his home he wants to make them feel small and insignificant in comparison to himself. Mrs. Birling is, herself, a person that is obsessed by social class, she may have selected the furniture herself as a way of showing off their status and again making their guests feel as if they aren't as "good" as the Birling family. Birling as you will see later is the stereotypical capitalist of the time. He will do anything to make himself look and feel as if he is better than his guest. The furniture represents the Birling families longing for status. In the early 1900s social status was virtually everything. This was because socialism dominated the whole of the United Kingdom. The vertical social ladder of status was what controlled who was a "somebody" and who was a "nobody". The description of the house is a good example of how unsocial many families were during this time because all anybody, who was "anybody", wanted was to show how wealthy they were, and to climb the social ladder. I shall now talk about the characters themselves. Mr. Birling is described as being, "a heavy-looking, rather portentous man in his middle fifties with fairly easy manners but rather provincial in his speech." He is a prosperous factory owner and is "a self made man". He follows all the capitalist traits of the time and works heavily under the capitalist business mentality, "build them cheap, sell them expensive".
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown" the use of symbols contributes to the development of the story's plot. Symbolism is used as a means to uncover the truth about the characters. The author, in an attempt to manifest the moral aspects of his society, uses many kinds of symbols to support his points. When analyzing an allegory like "Young Goodman Brown", the reader must realize that the story is in its entirety, a symbol. Hawthorne, through his writing is trying to convey the contradicting aspects of the Puritan ideology. This is made evident after discovering that Goodman's father burned an Indian Village and his grandfather lashed a Quaker woman. By Hawthorne including these acts of violence, he is revealing that the perfection thought to exist in a Puritan society is not so real. Not only past but present characters contribute to this belief. In the confinements of the forest, one sees how all those who are part of Goodman's present also have a dark side to haunt them. Many argue that it was a dream. However, Hawthorne was trying to demonstrate a larger picture. Whether through a dream or reality, it is clear that he wanted to challenge the so call Utopia of the Puritan society. In many parts of the story the reader comes across symbols. Although some may be more lucid than others, one must focus on details in order to find more than the obvious. For example, the title "Young Goodman Brown" in itself holds major significance. It gives the reader a pretty good definition of who the protagonist is. Young Goodman Brown is young and therefore inexperienced, impressionable, and easily influenced. As the story continues, the reader realizes all these to be true. For one thing, Young Goodman Brown and his wife Faith,... ...6. 5: 2737-40. Fogle, Richard, H. Hawthorn's Fiction: The Light and the Dark. Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Ed. Alison Reeves. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995. Shear, Walter. "Cultural fate and social freedom in three American short stories." Studies in Short Fiction, fall 92, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p543, 7p. Swisher, Clarice., ed. "Color and Images in The Scarlet Letter." Readings on Nathaniel Hawthorne. Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1996. VonFrank, Albert J. "Pretty in Pink: Young Goodman Brown and New-World." Critical Essay on Hawthorn's Short Stories, Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1991. Zanger, Jules. "Young Goodman Brown" and "A White Heron":Correspondences And illuminations. Papers on Language & Literature. Summer 90, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p346, 12p. Ã
Lab Report Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Acid when Variables are Changed :: essays research papers
Investigating the rate of reaction between marble chips and acid when variables are changed Aim: to find out how changing the concentration of acid by diluting it affects the rate of reaction. Planning: I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use 30ml of liquid made up of different concentrations of acid diluted with water. Introduction: I have decided to vary the concentration of the acid as my variable I could have chosen other variables to change such as changing the heat of the acid, the size of the marble chips and many others variables. The word equation for this reaction is Marble + Hydrochloric Ã¯Æ' , Carbon + Water + Calcium Chips Acid Dioxide Chloride and the symbol equation for this is CaCl + CO2 + H2O so CaCO + HCl Ã¯Æ' , CaCl + CO2 + H2O. Apparatus: A Stop Clock - To determine how long it takes to collect enough gas to fill the measuring cylinder. A Water Bath - To stop the water escaping from the measuring cylinder. A Measuring cylinder - To measure the amount of gas that is given off. A Chronicle Flask - Contains the marble chips, hydrochloric acid and the water that will make the reaction. A Tube - To connect the conical flask to the measuring cylinder. Method: Firstly, I will measure out 0.5 grams of powdered marble chips. Next I will measure out different concentrations of acid, these concentrations are, 30ml acid no water, 25ml acid 5ml water, 20ml acid 10ml water and 15ml acid 15ml water. I will then put the powdered marbled chips in the chronicle flask along with the acid and put the stopper on top. I will then record how long it takes for it to fill the measuring cylinder up. I will repeat each experiment 4 times so I can work out an average Prediction: I predict that when I have a higher concentration I will have a faster rate of reaction. I believe this is so because as you increase the concentration of the acid, there are more acid particles in the same volume. Therefore there is a greater chance of acid particles colliding, and reacting with more particles on the surface of the marble. So, this means that the higher the concentration of my acid the faster the reaction. Results: Test/acid strength 30ml acid no water 25ml acid 5ml water 20ml acid Lab Report Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Acid when Variables are Changed :: essays research papers Investigating the rate of reaction between marble chips and acid when variables are changed Aim: to find out how changing the concentration of acid by diluting it affects the rate of reaction. Planning: I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use 30ml of liquid made up of different concentrations of acid diluted with water. Introduction: I have decided to vary the concentration of the acid as my variable I could have chosen other variables to change such as changing the heat of the acid, the size of the marble chips and many others variables. The word equation for this reaction is Marble + Hydrochloric Ã¯Æ' , Carbon + Water + Calcium Chips Acid Dioxide Chloride and the symbol equation for this is CaCl + CO2 + H2O so CaCO + HCl Ã¯Æ' , CaCl + CO2 + H2O. Apparatus: A Stop Clock - To determine how long it takes to collect enough gas to fill the measuring cylinder. A Water Bath - To stop the water escaping from the measuring cylinder. A Measuring cylinder - To measure the amount of gas that is given off. A Chronicle Flask - Contains the marble chips, hydrochloric acid and the water that will make the reaction. A Tube - To connect the conical flask to the measuring cylinder. Method: Firstly, I will measure out 0.5 grams of powdered marble chips. Next I will measure out different concentrations of acid, these concentrations are, 30ml acid no water, 25ml acid 5ml water, 20ml acid 10ml water and 15ml acid 15ml water. I will then put the powdered marbled chips in the chronicle flask along with the acid and put the stopper on top. I will then record how long it takes for it to fill the measuring cylinder up. I will repeat each experiment 4 times so I can work out an average Prediction: I predict that when I have a higher concentration I will have a faster rate of reaction. I believe this is so because as you increase the concentration of the acid, there are more acid particles in the same volume. Therefore there is a greater chance of acid particles colliding, and reacting with more particles on the surface of the marble. So, this means that the higher the concentration of my acid the faster the reaction. Results: Test/acid strength 30ml acid no water 25ml acid 5ml water 20ml acid
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara The Concept of Omoiyari (Altruistic Sensitivity) in Japanese Relational Communication Kazuya Hara, Meikai University, Japan Abstract It is essential to explore Japanese concepts in Japanese languages as intellectual tools for future studies in Asia. In order to develop Asian theories of communication, therefore, Asian communication scholars ought to engage in this important task.This paper presents such an attempt by conceptualizing the concept of omoiyari for a Japanese theory of relational communication. In social psychology, the Japanese concept of omoiyari has been examined in terms of altruism, sympathy, empathy, and prosocial behavior, and a variety of cognitive models of prosocial behavior arousal have been proposed. In the field of communication studies, however, the concept of omoiyari has not attracted much scholarly attention, although aspects of harmonius Japanese communication are well documented.By synthesizing the rel evant literature on omoiyari across disciplines, then, this paper formulates a definition of omoiyari for Japanese communication research, lays out its basic assumptions, and characterizes it in light of four major semantic areas of omoiyari: (1) prayer, (2) encouragement, (3) help, and (4) support. Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Cast your bread upon the waters and it will return to you. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âa saying reflecting omoiyari When Japanese people feel anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s kindness toward them and see someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s warm-hearted feelings, thoughts, and behaviors, they appreciate that personÃ¢â¬â¢s omoiyari.The primary meaning of omoiyari is Ã¢â¬Å"an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sensitivity to imagine anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and personal affairs, including his or her circumstancesÃ¢â¬ (Shinmura, 1991, p. 387, translated by Hara). Omoiyari has attracted non-Japanese scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention as one of the most important ideas in Japanese cultural value and communication (e. g. , Lebra, 1976; Travis, 1998; Wierzbicka, 1997). The word omoiyari is often seen on signs bearing a school motto and at police stations. In many surveys of public opinion, Japanese people have listed omoiyari as a key concept on which they put high value.Although omoiyari -based behavior and activity are seen across cultures, Japanese people are the ones who put the highest value on omoiyari all over the world (Kikuchi, 1988; Akanuma, 2004). This humane omoiyari concept has been emphasized in moral education at schools in Japan as the guiding principle to communicate with others (Ito, 1998a; 1998b). In educational psychology in Japan, the importance of omoiyari has been emphasized with its developmental views of children (e. g. , Kikuchi, 1988).Recent inhumane crimes such as ill-treatment bullying or indiscriminate murder on the street are caused by the lack of omoiyari, and the importance of omoiyari has undergone a reevaluation in terms of education in the schools (Kanno, 1988). Psychological asp ects of omoiyari such as empathy and sympathy have been studied, 24 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara and its behavior has been studied as prosocial behavior, altruistic behavior, and helping behavior in social psychology (e. . , Harada, 1991; Kikuchi, 1998; Matsui, 1991). Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"omoiyari behaviorÃ¢â¬ is not generally used as a technical term in social psychology (Matsui, 1991), the titles of several studies on these concepts are comprehensively translated into Japanese using the word omoiyari (e. g. , Eisenberg & Mussen, 1989; Hoffman, 2001; Jones, 1993). Additionally, cultural psychologists Uchida and Kitayama (2001) developed a measurement scale of omoiyari from the viewpoint of sympathy.In the field of communication studies, although aspects of harmonious communication have been well-researched, only a few studies have focused on omoiyari as an important factor of Japanese harmonious communication. For example, Donahue (1998) argues that om oiyari is a psychological factor in Japanese indirect communication. In health communication, Kakai (2002) argues that Japanese prefer ambiguity or not disclosing of cancer to their family members. Behind such indirect communication and style is the psychological and cultural background of omoiyari.These studies refer to the study on Japanese empathy by anthropologist Lebra (1976) and her definition and observation of omoiyari. Although previous studies have contributed to pointing out the importance of omoiyari in Japanese mental culture and behavioral culture, there are three points to be further considered. First, many psychological studies based on Western concepts have not proposed clear conceptual definitions of omoiyari, so there is no consensus on its definition.Second, studies on omoiyari in other fields have only argued one aspect of omoiyari with its case contexts; we might be able to explore multi-aspects of omoiyari, taking various communication contexts and levels into consideration. Third, negative aspects of omoiyari have not been referred to adequately in previous studies on omoiyari. For example, there are cases when omoiyari toward others might not be appreciated or accepted by others. In order to develop future studies on omoiyari in Japanese communication, this paper attempts to concisely conceptualize Japanese omoiyari across disciplines.Additionally, the author believes that it is essential to explore Japanese concepts in Japanese languages as intellectual tools for future studies in Asia. In this paper, first, the author will review the relevant concepts in Western psychology which have been argued as omoiyari in Japan. Then, he will articulate Japanese omoiyari with its translation, definition, and major characteristics. Finally, using a diagram, he will propose four semantic areas of omoiyari, taking its communication levels and contexts into consideration.Omoiyari and Its Relevant Concepts The idea of omoiyari has been argued from th e standpoint of the concepts of altruism, sympathy, empathy and prosocial behavior. Although the causal developmental relationship among these concepts is controversial (e. g. , Eisenberg, 1986; Hoffman, 1982; Toi & Baston, 1982), each concept in itself has been regarded as one aspect of omoiyari in Japanese social psychology and communication studies. This means that these concepts are seen as elements of omoiyari, and conversely that omoiyari can be conceptualized with a combination of these concepts.The foundation of omoiyari feelings can be covered with the concept of altruism. Altruism is other-oriented and self-sacrificial (Kerbs, 1975). According to Cohen (1978), altruism refers to an act or desire to offer something gratuitously to others when needed. Cohen indicates that there are three components of altruism: (a) giving, or the desire to do so; (b) empathy; and (c) the absence of any motives of reward from doing the altruistic behavior. 25 Intercultural Communication Studi es XV: 1 2006 Hara Essentially, altruism lies in the motivation to help others and to aid others in their behavior.As this conceptual definition shows, altruism is the source that produces more concrete omoiyari feelings and behavior. Based on altruism, omoiyari seems to comprise both sympathy and empathy (e. g. , Kikuchi, 1991, 1998; Matsui, 1991). Sympathy refers to a concern for another person, agreement with and consideration for the feelings of others, or compassion (DeVito, 1986). It is generally conceived as a reaction to particular contexts such as the sadness or disappointment of others. Another view is that sympathy refers to a feeling for another person, while empathy refers to actually feeling as that person does (DeVito, 1986).Empathy in omoiyari is described in BruneauÃ¢â¬â¢s (1995) definition as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëfeeling intoÃ¢â¬â¢ anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own, vicariously, and attempting to achieve some I-thou congruenceÃ¢â¬ (p. 87). Empathy imp lies understanding of others through imagining the situation of others (Travis, 1998). Psychological aspects of altruism, empathy, and sympathy are reflected in prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior generally refers to Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary actions that are intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individualsÃ¢â¬ (Eisenberg & Mussen, 1989, p. 3).Wispe (1972) suggests that prosocial behavior refers to behaviors that can be described as sympathetic, altruistic, charitable, and so on. Furthermore, prosocial behavior benefits others without anticipating external rewards, and is done under the conditions that it is done either for its own end, or as an act of restitution (Bar-Tal, 1976). Also, as Bar-Tal argues, prosocial behavior should not be carried out as a result of external threat, enforcement, or obligation, but should be due to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom to decide to act in a certain manner or not.Reviewing altruism, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior in human communication, on the basis of altruism, people seem to have feelings of either empathy or sympathy at the stage of intrapersonal communication. Additionally, in the context of communication activities with others, when such feelings are seen in behavior, the behavior is regarded as prosocial behavior. As the findings in Uchida and KitayamaÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) survey indicate, omoiyari as sympathy had a positive relationship with emotional empathy and prosocial behavior. The combination f these concepts seems to help conceptualize aspects of omoiyari. However, since each concept cannot individually cover omoiyari in a comprehensive sense, we need a conceptual definition of omoiyari before applying these concepts to aspects of omoiyari. The Concept of Japanese Omoiyari In Japanese communication, it is often seen that people say Ã¢â¬Å"show omoiyari toward othersÃ¢â¬ when a person does not do so. The word omoiyari is directed toward anybody of the same generation and status, o r toward younger people with regard to both in-group and out-group members.To say Ã¢â¬Å"have omoiyariÃ¢â¬ to elderly people, on the other hand, sounds arrogant, although the person is thinking Ã¢â¬Å"omoiyariÃ¢â¬ in his or her mind. In such a situation, it seems appropriate to use the word Ã¢â¬Å"itawariÃ¢â¬ (caring consideration with respect) instead, even though the person has the word Ã¢â¬Å"omoiyariÃ¢â¬ in his or her mind. In this section, the author attempts to propose an expedient translation of omoiyari into English which is comprehensible to both Japanese and non-Japanese people. Then, the author will define omoiyari in Japanese communication.Translation of Omoiyari into English It is impossible to translate Japanese omoiyari into English with one word or phrase 26 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara which is comprehensible to both Japanese and non-Japanese people. Even words such as compassion, consideration, thoughtfulness, mercy, and benevolenc e cover only one aspect of Japanese omoiyari. There seem to be two reasons for this difficulty. First, there are different views of omoiyari across cultures.For example, Yamagishi (1995) argues that for Westerners, omoiyari is not Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtfulnessÃ¢â¬ to others, which is occasionally perceived to be unnecessarily imposed by others depriving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own right to choose his/her own behavior. Easterners, on the other hand, believe that thoughtfulness-based omoiyari is essential to living a group-oriented life. Secondly, as Travis (1998) points out, English words such as Ã¢â¬Å"considerateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtful,Ã¢â¬ which are related to omoiyari, do not involve the same kind of Ã¢â¬Å"intuitiveÃ¢â¬ understanding. This intuitive way of communication is also cultivated as intuitive listening and empathic understanding inJapanese ways of communication (Barnland, 1975). As for a neutral and comprehensible translation term, Yamagishi (1995) points out that Ã¢â¬Å"se nsitivityÃ¢â¬ can represent the feelings of omoiyari that are common to Westerners and Easterners and which do not have the connotation of imposing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought on others. Therefore, in this paper, the author uses his own tentative and expedient translation of omoiyari as Ã¢â¬Å"altruistic sensitivityÃ¢â¬ taking the definition of altruism, Ã¢â¬Å"concern for the happiness and welfare of other people rather than for your own Ã¢â¬ (Sinclair, 1987, p. 2) into consideration, regarding altruism as the psychological foundation to produce omoiyari-based feelings such as empathy or sympathy. Defining Omoiyari Omoi in omoiyari means considerate caring for others, while yari is the noun form of the verb yaru, which means sending something to others. Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"omoiyari Ã¢â¬ literally means sending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s altruistic feelings to others. The difference among omoiyari, empathy, and sympathy is that omoiyari implies intuitive understanding and includes behaving in that way (Shinmura, 1991; Travis, 1998; Uchida & Kitayama, 2001).Consideration toward others is not always received, and omoiyari does not expect any reward. If any reward is expected, it is not omoiyari but business-like helping behavior. One of the definitions of omoiyari which is frequently referred to is the one by cultural anthropologist Lebra (1976), which describes omoiyari as Ã¢â¬Å"the ability and willingness to feel what others are feeling, to vicariously experience the pleasure or pain that they are undergoing, and to help them satisfy their wishesÃ¢â¬ ¦without being told verballyÃ¢â¬ (p. 38).Historical anthropologist Akanuma (2004) states that omoiyari is to guess othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings and pay careful attention to their feelings, accepting what has happened (or will happen) to others as what has happened (or will happen) to myself. Social psychologist Ninomiya (1991) defines omoiyari as voluntary behavior for othersÃ¢â¬â¢ benefit. The common assumptions underlying all these definitions are that omoiyari is voluntary and that people put high value on sharing feelings with others. As such, intuitive understanding is necessary.In this study, the author will define omoiyari as an intuitive understanding of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings that will occasionally lead us to conceive what to do or what not to do to others. Taking the conceptual issues of omoiyari into consideration, the author will further argue major characteristics of omoiyari in the following section. Major Characteristics of Omoiyari To have a sense of omoiyari and to behave with omoiyari are regarded as ideal communication in Japanese society. For example, according to a survey by the Ministry of 27 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 HaraEducation in Japan cited in the Yomiuri-shimbun (1994), elementary and junior high school teachers in Japan answered that they put the highest value on omoiyari in moral education. Additionally, in a survey on child-birth in Japan by the Yo miuri-shimbun (2005), 86. 7% of the parents expected their children to be a child with omoiyari. As these data show, to have omoiyari is essential in Japanese relational communication across contexts. In this section, the author will begin to argue major characteristics of omoiyari based on its psychological, behavioral aspects, along with the assumptions of omoiyari in previous studies.Then negative aspects of omoiyari will be briefly mentioned. Finally, four context-based semantic areas of omoiyari in human communication will be proposed. Psychological Aspects of Omoiyari Omoiyari has been considered altruistic feelings or emotional participation in othersÃ¢â¬â¢ mindds (Eisenberg & Mussen, 1989; Kikuchi, 1988), and there are three characteristics which occasionally lead to actual prosocial behavior. The first is that omoiyari does not include the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"othernessÃ¢â¬ (Akanuma, 2004). This means that omoiyari means to understand the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, not taki ng oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept into consideration (Otsuka, 1991).In this assumption, there is a Japanese interpersonal view that puts high value on oneness with others. For example, Hamaguchi (1985) argues that Japanese people think that since affectionate mutual aid is essential, people should read mutual true intention, and the relationship once established must be respected as valuable. Oneness with others gets reinforced through mutual omoiyari. The second is that omiyari is neither based on pity from superiority nor on mechanistic give-and-take relations (Otsuka, 1991).The motivation of omoiyari is voluntary, and does not expect gratitude from others (Kikuchi, 1991). If a person expects any reward when they help others, that is not omoiyari. Such a reward-expecting behavior will not be respected but rather despised, and is against the virtue of omoiyari. The third is that the value of omoiyari is evaluated based on purity of consideration of others. It goes without saying that th e purer the consideration is, the more appreciated it is. However, such pure consideration of others occasionally contradicts its behavior.A commonly cited example is that physicians and family members are reluctant to directly disclose terminal diagnoses to patients because of omoiyari (Kakai 2001; Paton & Wicks, 1996). Such communication, which might be regarded as deception, will not be criticized by others because they know the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s true feelings. Behind this type of communication, there is an unspoken assumption that true and honest feelings will be understood by others even though oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior contradicts his or her psychological feelings. Behavioral Aspects of Omoiyari Omoiyari in behavior has been studied as prosocial behavior in social psychology.Kikuchi (1998) provides four common characteristics of omoiyari based on its psychological assumptions. The first is that omoiyari as prosocial behavior includes the idea of an action which is helpful for others . However, this does not necessarily mean that the prosocial behavior will be willingly accepted by others. The second is that omoiyari as true prosocial behavior is not done with the expectation of a reward from others. This is not a matter of whether a person receives or rejects a reward, but rather the premise that the person had no desire to receive a reward in the first place.The third is that omoiyari-based prosocial behavior is accompanied by a kind of cost or risk of self-sacrifice. The final condition is that omoiyari as prosocial behavior 28 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara should be voluntary. This means that a person is not bound by any sense of duty to others, but is willing to behave prosocially as a choice. Japanese omoiyari behavior is uniquely seen in conflicting situations. For example, it is often stated that Japanese prefer to avoid conflict rather than to try to resolve it. In such a situation, the Japanese are inclined to use mbiguous or euph emistic expressions with their bokashi (ambiguous) logic (Nayayama, 1986), and to use honne (true intentions) and tatemae (public principles) properly (Doi, 1985) so as not to hurt othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings. Such a linguistic feature can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"the language of omoiyari,Ã¢â¬ and it is listener-oriented (Ando, 1986). Even to enemies, they do not tend to deliver a fatal blow. Such communication styles are represented in proverbs such as teki ni shio wo okuru (to show humanity even to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy) or bushi no nasake (samurai-like mercy). Omoiyari, however, is not always performed desirably.In the following section, negative aspects of omoiyari will be mentioned with cases that are against its psychological and behavioral assumptions. Negative Aspects of Omoiyari Omoiyari does not always function as we hope. For example, overly imposing omoiyari on others might be a psychological burden or, even worse, an annoyance. This is called osekkai (meddlesome) and is the a ntithesis of empathetic understanding (Lebra, 1976). Especially when the elderly want to meddle in younger peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs, the younger people cannot say Ã¢â¬Å"Please mind on your business. This type of omoiyari could be considered osekkai. In the worst case scenario, when omoiyari is not accepted by the receiver as the source expected, the source might blame the receiver in his or her mind. This is called sakaurami (to think ill of a person who meant to be kind). At the point when the source feels sakaurami, however, his or her kindness to others is no longer regarded as omoiyari. Four Context-Based Semantic Areas of Omoiyari in Human Communication As argued above, omoiyari consists of both affective aspects (altruism, sympathy, empathy) and a behavioral one (prosocial behavior).Using these concepts, the author will attempt to conceptualize four semantic areas of omoiyari. The following figure representing the four areas of omoiyari is based on intrapersonal communication (Areas A and B) and interactive level (Areas C & D). [See next page. ] The fundamental assumption is that Area A and Area B are at the level of intrapersonal communication and cover oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive and affective aspects. Area C covers the interaction stemming from Area A, and Area D covers the interaction stemming from Area B. Area A and Area C are based on sympathy, while Area B and Area D are based on empathy.Every feeling and behavior by a communicator is based on altruism and with intuition. Area A is the situation where a person is worrying abut someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s undesirable situation and praying that it will be improved. The feeling is based on altruism and sympathy. In this context, examples such as praying for the recovery of anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s health or sympathizing with the struggle of others are included. In contrast, in Area B, the communicator has a feeling of encouragement in his or her mind, and the feeling is based on altruism and empathy.For example, praying for the success or health of others is included in this area. Area C and Area D cover peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioral aspects in their relational communication and social activities. In these areas, verbal and nonverbal interaction is exchanged, and helping behavior is added when necessary. Area C, which stems from the psychological feelings of Area A, stands for prosocial behavior based on altruism and sympathy. 29 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara Communication activities such as helping behavior or volunteer activities are included in this area.Also, Area D, which stems from the psychological feelings of Area B, is based on altruism and empathy, and includes situations such as supporting other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s success with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own will or participating in activities to share happiness with others. Prosocial Behavior Area C: Help Area D: Support Sympathy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Area A: Prayer Intuition Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Empathy Area B: Encouragement Altruism Figure 1. Four Context-Based Semantic Areas of Omoiyari in Human Communication Concluding Remarks The primary purpose of this essay was to onceptualize Japanese omoiyari (altruistic sensitivity) with its psychological and behavioral characteristics, and to propose four types of omoiyari (prayer, encouragement, help, and support) from the viewpoint of communication. Although the author was only able to review a portion of the previous literature on omoiyari, he hopes that the essence of omoiyari conceptualized in this paper will contribute to further studies of Japanese relational communication. Based on the conceptualization in this paper, the author expects future studies to be conducted in three areas.First, various communication styles in each of the four semantic areas of omoiyari (prayer, encouragement, help, and support) should be further examined and discussed. Secondly, the possibility of combining these four areas should be further examined using empi rical studies. Third, based on the emic studies on this type of concept all over the world, to seek commonalities of omoiyari views across cultures is strongly suggested. Based on these studies, derived-etic views of altruistic sensitivity are highly anticipated. References Akanuma, K. (2004). Nihonjin wa naze gambaru noka (Why do the Japanese make efforts to anything? . Tokyo: Daisan-shokan. Ando, S. (1986). Nihongo no ronri, eigo no ronri (The logic of Japanese language and the logic of English language). Tokyo: Taishukan. Barnlund, D. C. (1975). Public and private self in Japan and the United States: Communicative Styles of two cultures. Tokyo: Simul Press. Bar-Tal, D. (1976). Prosocial behavior: Thory and research. NY: Halsted Press. Bruneau, T. (1988). Conceptualizing and using empathy in intercultural contexts. Human Communication Studies,16,37-70. 30 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara Bruneau, T. (1995).Empathetic intercultural communication: State of the art and future potential. Intercultural Communication Studies, 8,1-24. Cohen, R. (1978). Altruism: Human, cultural, or what? In L. Wispe (Eds. ), Altruism, sympathy, and helping: Psychological and sociological principles (pp. 79-98). New York, NY. Academic press. DeVito, J. A. (1986). The communication handbook: A dictionary. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Doi, T. (1985). The anatomy of self: The individual versus society (M. A. Harbison. Trans. ). Tokyo: Kodansha International. Donahue, R. T. (1998). Japanese culture and communication: Critical cultural analysis.Lanham, MD. University of Press America. Eisenberg, N. (1986). Altruistic cognition, emotion, and behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Eisenberg, N. & Mussen, P. H. (1989). The roots of prosocial behavior in children. Cambridge CB: Cambridge University Press. Eisenberg, N. & Mussen, P. H. (1989). Omoiyari kodo no hattatsu shinri (The roots of prosocial behavior in children) (A. Kikuchi. & N. Ninomiya Trans. ). Tokyo: Kaneko-shobo. H amaguchi, E. (1985). A contextual model of the Japanese: Toward a methodological innovation in Japanese studies. (S. Kumon & M. R. Creighton Trans. ).Journal of Japanese Studies, 11, (2), 289-321. Harada, J. (1991). Omoiyari no kozo (The anatomy of omoiyari). In Kikuchi, A. (Ed. ) Gendai no esupuri: Omoiyari no shinri, No. 291 (Current espirit: The psychology of omoiyari No. 291. (pp. 48-56). Tokyo: Shibundo. Hoffman, M. L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed. ,) The development of prosocial behavior (pp. 218-231). New York: Academic Press. Hoffman, M. L. (2001). Kyokan to dotokusei no hattatsu shinrigaku: omoiyari toseigi tono kakawariaide (Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice) (Kikuchi, A. Ninomiya, K. Trans. ). Tokyo: Kawashima-shoten. Ito, K. (1998a). Omoiyari no kokoro wo hagukumu dotokujugyo: Shogakkou ni okeru togoteki puroguramu no tenkai (Moral education classes to develop omoiyari mind: The devel opment of programs at elementary schools). Tokyo: Meiji Tosho Shuppan. Ito, K. (1998b). Omoiyari no kokoro wo hagukumu dotokujugyo: Chugakko ni okeru togoteki puroguramu no tenkai ((Moral education classes to develop omoiyari mind: The development of programs at junior high schools). Tokyo: Meiji Tosho Shuppan. Jones, R. N. (1993).Omoiyari no ningenkankei sukiru (Human relationship skills: Training and self-help). (Aikawa, M. Trans. ). Tokyo: Seishin-shobo. Kakai, H. (2002). A double standard in bioethical reasoning for disclosure of advanced cancer diagnoses in Japan. Health Communication, 14, (3), 361-376. Kanno, J. (1988). Ijime to omoiyari: ijimekko no kokoro no yugami (Ill-treatment and omoiyari: The distorted mind of ill-treating children). Jidoshinri (Child Psychology), 42, (6), 25-32. Kerbs, D. (1975). Empathy, and altruism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 1134-1146. Kikuchi, A. 1988). Omoiyari no hattatsu shinri (Developmental psychology of omoiyari). Jido shinri (Child Psychology), 42, (6), 18-22. 31 Intercultural Communication Studies XV: 1 2006 Hara Kikuchi, A. (1991). Omoiyari wo kangaeru: Hito to hito tono kakawarigaku (Consideration of omoiyari: Science on the relationship between person and person). Kyoto: Tanko-sha. Kikuchi, A. (1998). Mata omoiyari wo kagaku suru (Another scientific argument on omoiyari). Tokyo: Kawashima-shoten. Lebra, T. S. (1976). Japanese patterns of behavior. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Matsui, Y. (1991).Omoiyari no kozo (The anatomy of omoiyari). In Kikuchi, A. (Ed. ) Gendai no esupuri: Omoiyari no shinri, No. 291 (Current espirit: The psychology of omoiyari No. 291. (pp. 27-37). Tokyo: Shibundo. Nakayama, O. (1986). 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Collins cobuild English language dictionary.London: HarperCollins. Toi, M. & Batson, C. D (1982). More evidence that empathy is a source of altruistic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 281-292. Travis, C. (1998). Omoiyari as a core Japanese value: Japanese-style empathy? In A. Angeliki & T. Elzbieta ( Eds. ), Speaking of emotions: Conceptualization and expression (pp. 55-81). Berlin: Mouton de Gryyter. Uchida, Y. & Kitayama, S. (2001). Omoiyari shakudo no sakusei to datosei no kensho (Development and validation of a sympathy scale). The Journal of Psychology, 72, (4), 275-282. Wierzbicka, A. (1997).Understanding cultures through their key words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese. New York: Oxford University Press. Wispe, L. G. (1972). Positive forms of social behavior: An overview. Journal of Social Issues, 28, (3), 1-19. Yamagishi, K. (1995). Nichiei gengo bunka ronko (Aspects of Japanese-English languages and cultures). Tokyo: Kobian-shobo. Yomiuri shimbun (1994, May 27). Sofuto ni natta dotoku kyooku (Moral education in Japan became flexible). Tokyo: Yomiuri shinbun-sha. p. 30. Yomiuri shimbun. (2005, July 5). Data: Kazoku (Data: Family). Tokyo: Yomiuri-Shimbun-sha. p. 39. 32
Monday, September 16, 2019
There are various ways which people can learn. There is a need to identify approaches that can assess learning effectively. David Kolb proposed a four stage learning process with a cycle of learning. (Gravells, A. 2008). The process is represented in the diagram below: Concrete experience This is process where the learner experiences or immerses themselves in the task. It is the first stage where the task assigned is carried out. It is also called the doing stage. In my specialism, this could be the time where I give my learner class assignment or test to do in the class. (Gravells, A. 2008). It is good way of assessing learning and getting feedback immediately. Observation and Reflection This involves stepping back from the activity and reviewing what has been done and experienced. Here the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s values, attitudes and beliefs can affect their thinking process. This is the process where the learner thinks about what they you have done. The learner has the opportunity to reflect on what has been done in the classroom through the home work given. Abstract conceptualisation This is where the learner tries to interpret and understand the activities that have been carried out during learning. This is the planning how you will do it differently stage. The learner has the opportunity to do this as I lecture a particular topic in mathematics. Active Experimentation It enables the learner to take in new learning and predict what is likely to happen next or what future actions can be taken to improve the way activities can be done in future. This is the redoing stage based upon experience and reflection. When feedback on Tests or home work is given, the learner has the opportunity to improve upon what has already been submitted. Learning styles A learning style is a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s consistent way of responding and using stimuli in the context of learning. Honey and MumfordÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style questionnaire is another theory used to demonstrate how a learner is able to learn effectively. Questionnaires were given to the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s that probes general behavioural tendencies. Although their theory is drawn from David Kolb, it had some differences. Learners were divided into Reflectors, Theorists, Pragmatist and Activist. Reflector The learner prefers to learn from activities they watch, think and review what has happened. They like to use journals and brainstorming. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/honey_mumford.html [accessed on 3 July 2012.]. To be able to ensure learning takes place for this kind of learner, as a Teacher I would organise more group work, discussions and lecturing in mathematics sessions. Also give out hand outs for learner to read and reflect upon. Theorists Learners in this category prefer to think a problem through step by step manner. They like lectures, analogies, systems, case studies, models and reading. I would organise more lectures on a topic, give handouts and assignments for such learners giving them the opportunity to tackle problems/ questions later on. Pragmatist The learners prefer to apply new learning to actual practice to see if they work. They prefer field works, laboratories, observations, feedback and coaching. Ã Here learning can effectively take place where a lot of examples on topics are tried out with learner before giving out home work or assignments. A lot of clear feedback on assignments/ tasks and activities will be needed to ensure the learners actually understand information passed across.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The 21st century is an era greatly influenced by Ã¢â¬Å"reality televisionÃ¢â¬ . If weÃ¢â¬â¢re not trying to keep up with the Kardashians, weÃ¢â¬â¢re watching Big Brother, Bachelors/Bachelorette, and Flavor of Love. This is a contrast from the 20th century, which was the era of the silver screen, the era of cinema. Rather than having little to no imagination like television today the films of this time era pushed the boundaries of our imagination and fulfilled and captured our wildest dreams. Two of the greatest movies of this time were A Trip to the Moon, directed by Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s (1902) and The Great Train Robbery directed by Edwin Porter (1903). In his movie A Trip to the Moon, Georges MÃ ©liÃ ¨s is an early example of narrative film, his introduction film editing and help distinguish narrative films and how they were seen in comparison of music, books, and theatre. Although his edits were simple, for example people disappearing win a cloud of smoke, meaning he would make smoke build in front of the actors, stop filming the scene, move the actors out of the frame, and start recording again thus making the audience believe that the actors instantly disappeared in front of their eyes. This brought a new dimension into film, and introduced film editing to the world. He shot his films at 14 frames per second, his shots always remained stationary but what made these scenes amazing were his amazing sets designs, hand painted backgrounds and his in camera effects, Really took an audience who were alive before the first manned moon landing in 1969 to a world of pure science fiction and imagination. Taking what MÃ ©liÃ ¨s introduced into narrative movies and runningÃ with it, Edwin Porter being the father of the Ã¢â¬Å"narrativeÃ¢â¬ , introduced at this time what was considered state of the art filmmaking technologies that help further film narrative. In The Great Train Robbery, Porter introduced several Film Technologies such as cross cutting, double exposure, movement of the camera, tracking and panning, out of sequence shots, and colourizing of people and actions. These edits and special effects were very effective at drawing the audience into the movie, special effects let the audience know when guns were shot, how joyous the people were when they were dancing it effectively brought the audience into that world. He also introduced a different film method which was location shooting, unlike MÃ ©liÃ ¨s whoÃ¢â¬â¢s camera always remained stationary, and were shot on sets, Porter wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t stationary it moved with the actors, and his set wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a set at all, is was outside, it was in the train, it was were ever the story took them. This took film narrative to a new level; it brought the audience on the journey, something film lacked before MÃ ©liÃ ¨s and Porter. Something that both their films had that films before them didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have, was a story. Before them films did not have any structure or a linear storyline meaning they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have start leading to a climax leading to the end. Their films were significantly longer the films before them MÃ ©liÃ ¨sÃ¢â¬â¢s film being 10 minutes and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s film being 12 minutes. The result of their films telling a story helped them reach their goal and what they wanted their audience to get from the film and that was the story. A Trip to the Moon a film that follows a group of very intelligent astronomers as the hatch an intricate plan to travel moon.(Westminster, 2010) While The Great Train Robbery is a story about the 4 bandits who tie up and assault a worker at the train station sneak on the train, steal all the passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ money and shoots at them as the make a get away. A child finds the worker at the train station tied up tells the sheriff and they go on a hunt to get the bandits. To compare these two films and say which one was better effective reaching it goal then the other, is hard, and practically impossible. They both told their stories, but if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for MÃ ©liÃ ¨s introduction of film editing many of the effects that were used in Porters film wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have happened. A Trip to the Moon was the first science fiction film; the first of itÃ¢â¬â¢s kind ever. It was extremely popular and helped the cinema marketÃ transition into narrative films. Not to take away from Porter, The Great Train Robbery took what MÃ ©liÃ ¨s did and took to a whole complete level and help solidify narrative films spot in the cinema market. Comparing these films is like comparing the IPhone to the IPhone 5, of course the IPhone 5 is better and more effective at doing itÃ¢â¬â¢s job then the original IPhone but without the original IPhone there would be no IPhone 5. Works Cited Westminster. (2010, Novemeber 12). A Trip to the Moon . (N. Montano, Editor) Retrieved September 13, 2013, from Film110: https://film110.pbworks.com/w/page/12610142/A%20Trip%20to%20the%20Moon