Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Talent Management Strategy Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Talent Management Strategy - Term Paper ExampleConversely, it is with courtesy of proper talents heed strategies that presidencys have sprang from small corporate fledglings, to reputable multinationals. The blueprints of proper talent management may be seen in the ensuing discourse. Introduction The organization in point is a profit-making business entity which deals in food and beverages. The organization is still in the process of growth and take aimment as it comprises 200 employees, of which 20 are identified as leaders and may be called quick Foods Ltd. In itself, talent management denotes the anticipation of essential human capital that an organization may need at a given time, then setting a plan and then carrying out that that plan to construe organizational needs. So sacrosanct is talent management in aiming at specific performance buttocks that it has become the science of employing strategic human resources HR to strengthen organizational value and to encourage t he organization annoy its value. Determining the Key Components of Talent Management, Including Identifying, Assessing, and Developing Talent There are several components of talent management. The initial component involves identification. ... Apart from academic credentials, Swift Foods Ltd may use overall individual performance of the probable recruit in the interview, experience and letters of recommendation, among others. Academic credentials for instance will help Swift Foods Ltd ascertain formal skills and expertise an individual candidate possesses, in light of the office to be filled, tour experience will help the organization determine the degree of the candidates ability to perform. Testimonials for instance will help ascertain the behavioral predisposition that a given candidate possesses, in relation to the role that he is to discharge. All these factors will be important in identifying talent since talent is an element compounded by other desirable attributes such a s personal traits, skills and abilities. The second component of talent management is the discernment of talent. This involves, setting performance target for an employee and then analyzing his actual performance against the already-set target. It is from this juncture that measures may be taken to uphold and enhance the talent that is extant and to inculcate upon the employee, new talents that are desired in the organization. To develop talent, there are several strategies and approaches that may successfully apply. Swift Foods Ltd can use the compensation management system, where it maintains competitive remunerations while managing payroll costs, total compensation, compensation for planning and awarding and pay-for-performance arrangements. Going by the recommendations that Fayol (2010) makes, the organization can also use spheric human resources that help maintain and manage core elements of the global workforce- county-specific attributes also included. Swift Foods Ltd may

Monday, April 29, 2019

Operational framework for the DRNC Convention Research Paper

Operational framework for the DRNC Convention - research Paper ExampleThe direct participants in ensuring security and emergence response, and the community hosting the event should be active for any emergency situation. No room should be left for either infringement of security or avoidable suffering due to any unforeseen emergency situation. In such regard, this paper entails the operational framework for the DRNC Convention. A convention of the Democratic and Republican National Committees requires the exercise of stringent security measures. The holy terror of terrorism has increased greatly in the post 9/11 era, prompting the need for decorous planning of events that may be targeted. Indeed, the September 11 attacks made the George Bush administration adopt a security focused emergency management at the national level, while also encouraging the word sense of the same at state and local levels of emergency management (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2014). Anti-terrorism effort s to protect American citizens in their homeland or abroad are undertaken through a collaboration of the military, the intelligence community, law enforcement agencies, the diplomatical community, and emergency management. Presently, the threat to American leaders arises from within, where there are some disgruntled groups such as anarchists as well as foreign based groups like al Qaeda. Therefore, for the sake of securing the DRNC Convention and ensuring that any damage caused by threats is minimized, the collaboration of the event planners with all the stakeholders is required. The operational framework should be designed in a way to cater for all emergency situations that may happen within the precincts of the venue. Though the master(prenominal) event may without a hitch, there is a risk of problems arising among the protestors who are expected to picket nearby.

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Marketing Communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marketing Communications - Essay ExampleThe inter-dependence of the various elements within the system has vast authority to establish a foodstuff that is sustainable as well as mutu onlyy satisfying. Indeed, as per the impression (persuaders), one of the major challenges of modern integrated marketing is anticipating the changing requirements of the people and using effective advertizing to connect emotionally with the people.Kotler has defined IMC as the concept under which a fraternity carefully integrates and coordinates its galore(postnominal) communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling messages about the organization and its products (Kotler, 2009). Even though the customer base is increasing, it is becoming difficult not only to attract more customers but to a fault to retain them. So, one need to add something more on the existing products to make it more inviting without compromising much on the price. In fact, the more innovative the product and fancier the promotional techniques, the higher(prenominal) are its chances of capturing market space. Thereby, asserting that brands, advertising, and promotional techniques are very important tools of marketing.Baker and Hart draw asserted that putting people into marketing is essential for many reasons and not the least being that all businesses fundamentally cater to the needs of the people (Baker & Hart, 2007). Advertisements and media play a very crucial role in the strategy planning and are often used to define companys position vis--vis the market strategy for non market factors. A well defined market strategy is the key to success in any new market. The various media in the region are important tool to popularize the company and help establish its brand among the masses.Analysis and identification of the changing trends of the customer requirements are important ingredients to strain leverage against their rivals. Understanding of consumer psychology,

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Economics is, essentially the science of decision making. Do you agree Essay

Economics is, essentially the cognizance of decision making. Do you agree or disagree Please explain and support your position - try ExampleThe following discussion strengthens the hypothesis that political economy is essentially the science of decision-making.Economics helps people to date the production process, how goods and services can be exchanged, and the different consumption patterns in an economic system. In this case, economics plays a crucial role of helping individuals, and organizations to identify the goods and services that they can produce in the more or less profitable manner. It also enlightens them on the best markets to exchange their commodities, thus maximizing their returns. In relation to consumption, economics provides consumers with the ability to differentiate the consumption patterns that can make them live a stable life as opposed to consumption patterns that may impose strains on their lives. Therefore, economics plays a major role in the decision making process as it dictates what to do at given periods through provision of uninflected data.The government also utilizes economic concepts when dealing with issues related to public finance and the concepts allow the government to pitch up certain prices in the nation, and determine the spending of the government. Economics also contribute significantly to setting prices as it deals with the forces of demand and supply. Therefore, economics aids in the decision making process as it allows different entities to fix prices based on several considerations, that involves statistical relationships.Given that we live in a world of scrimpy resources, people strive to find ways that can help them utilize such resources in an economic manner. Economics, which aims at studying human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce meaning that have alternative uses teaches individuals to cope. It helps individuals to make good use of scarce resources, thus increasing their wealth , and welfare. This emanates from the fact that economics increases the ability of individuals to make wise

Friday, April 26, 2019

The Possibilities of Progress in International Politics Research Paper

The Possibilities of mature in International Politics - Research Paper ExampleThe Possibilities of Progress in International PoliticsTherefore, info testament be collected from secondary sources. The qualitative query methodology leave behind correspondingly include three comees of question. These would incorporate the grounded theory, historical research and critical friendly research approaches. In this regard, grounded theory research approach suggests of a research based on grounded data from secondary sources as well as radical sources. Based on the collected data obtained from the sources, the research approach will lead to the generation of relevant theory to suffice the determined goal of the study. This approach is highly important in the current context, as it would lead to the establishment of relevant theories related to outside(a) political conflicts and resolutions (Leavy, 2014).Another research approach will be used in the study is the historical research ap proach, wherein the researchers use historical data for conducting the research. These historical data will both be primary and secondary. Primary data will be collected from archaeological evidences and others, while the secondary sources will be collected from several scholarly articles and books (Leavy, 2014). The third approach used in the research study will be the critical social research approach. Through this approach, data collected from social and cultural evidences will be critically analyzed. Applying this approach, the concepts of humanities and social sciences will also be simultaneously used.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

GATT Priciples in International Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

GATT Priciples in Inter rural areaal sparing science - Essay ExampleThe General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) is a voluntary harmony to give tariff concessions and reduce restriction on imports among 135 countries of the world (Blirtit). The agreement was formulated in spite of appearance the jurisdiction and framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). There are four basic principles cover by GATT. These are (1) discrimination is prohibited in craftiness relations, (2) Tariffs instead of trade barriers should be apply by countries to protect themselves from foreign competition, (3) all member nation must promote the trading quest of each country, (4) negotiations between concerting terms of trade must follow the GATT framework (Blirtit). These principles have a substantiative influence in international trade.Discriminatory practices against a particular country hurt the balance of trade among nations. For example if the US discriminated against Argentinas agricult ural products it would hurt the internal economy of this nation which afterwards affects the purchasing power of Argentina and the amount of trade activity with other nations. An example of a homophobic trade practice that freighter hurt a local economy of a GATT member nation is dumping. Dumping occurs when one country exports a significant amount of goods to another country at prices untold lower than the domestic marketplace (Anwers, 2009). The anti-discriminatory clauses with the GATT principles provide a safeguard that protects the integrity of trade relations in the international economy.Tariffs are am instruments which creates a tax imposition on imports that raise the price and can be used to manipulate the demand specific goods and service imports. The good thing about this economic tool is that it provides consistency as far as creating a simple mechanism that can be utilized by any country to protect local industries. The GATT principles stipulate that tariffs should be the universal

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Exelence in public sector Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Exelence in earthly concern sector - Essay ExampleIt is necessary to discuss strategies that AbilityOne Commission can adapt to improve their enlisting method and attract qualified candidates. In addition, it is crucial to examine the ability of the proposed plan to improve the functioning of workers, enhance funding and determine the value of the project.Prior to making decisions on the best candidate, the fashion lead have a clear stipulation of job requirements and the qualities of needed for a particular job. In the past, the room has not provided enough job descriptions. Consequently, there has been insufficient information concerning the rationale of a particular job, its purview in the agency, job duties and productivity. A candidate willing be required to provide information concerning his proficiency, bore of service and experience. Through this, the agency will attract competent and qualified candidates. The candidates will be evaluated during the recruitment proce ss to establish whether they have the requisite requirements (Shorney, 2014). The procedure of job analysis would enable the agency to revaluation of a particular job. The main objective of this plan is to examine the previous job description, candidate spec and come up with minor changes.It is necessary to change the duties and responsibilities, proficiency and experience to match the evolving environment. In addition, the agency will have to consider whether it is necessary to consider a particular job vacant and condition whether it is full-time or part-time.In order to attract competent candidates, the agency will provide alive workers a chance to apply for a vacant position within the organization. Internal recruitment has many advantages. For example, it is morale boosting as it encourages workers to believe that there is room for progression within the agency. In addition, AbilityOne Commission will have additional information on competency and mind-set of an internal can didate and expedite

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Fundraising Skills - Writing a Fundraising Bid Essay

Fundraising Skills - Writing a Fundraising Bid - Essay ExampleThese include planning requirements betimes in advance, having sound conceptual framework, including the aims and objectives of the program and gener totallyy seeing everything from the perspective of the funder among others. All these need to be in the bid.Communication is key when one is fundraising. This is because one has to present their needs to the funders eloquently and clearly. Diplomacy is likewise important since fundraising includes interactions with other people. Proper management skills argon also necessary. This is of the time of the funders and the money allocated for the program.For one to be employed there is need for grasp of the content, ability to be part of a competent, diverse and sceptered workforce, being able to manage funds and having great vision and sense of direction. Careers need to be managed by ensuring one performs his or her duties as well as advancing in the level of education. If one does all this, then their future is somehow assured to be successful.The Make Them Smile Charity Organization. We intend to contract big and strongly influence our society. Therefore, we are requesting for funds from you, The Big Lottery, so that we can achieve our desires. We are filling this application form stating our request. We have identified a need in the society requiring our function to fulfill and we shall attempt to convince you on our mission and vision.Cleft lip and palate are developmental defects of the upper lip and roof of the outer mouth present at birth. They may occur one after another or in combination. Incomplete fusion of the developing lip or the incomplete fusion of the embarrassing or soft palate causes them. All this happens during the prenatal stage of a childs life. This material body causes feeding problems, ear infections or even hearing loss, speech problems and dental problems (Howard & Lohmander 2012, p.56)Although rectifying this is done thro ugh a simple

Monday, April 22, 2019

Case Study - Homeland Security Issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Case Study - native land Security Issue - Essay ExampleThe suspected terrorist separate is Al-Qaeda. The anthrax terrorist attack occurred during 2001s October and November months. Similarly, the airplane hijackings and murder of in the raw York civilians occurred on September 11, 2001. Bin withdraw announced to the world that he personally orchestrated the September 11, 2001 airplane attacks on two New York buildings. The problem includes the responsibility of the United States Homeland Security fashion to thwart emerging terrorist attacks, especially the biologic weapon attacks. Description of the Subject. The subject focuses on the intricacies of the 2001 Anthrax biological attack. The 2001 Anthrax garner attacks included send letters to the intended terror victims. The letters targeted individuals to create a statement. In turn, the subject includes the United States Homeland Security Agencys role in reducing or stopping all future Anthrax and other biology-based attacks on the Ameri backside people. Chronology of the Case Study. Barry Schneider emphasized the United States Homeland Security Agency had to resolve the 2001 Anthrax bioterrorism attack (2004, p.2). After the recent September airline hijacking and attack, the Anthrax letters incident cropped up. The terrorist sent several letters to several intended victims within the United States. The letter senders sent the deadly envelopes through the United States post office. The letters contained a deadly chemical, Anthrax. Anthrax can easily kill the person opening the Anthrax-containing letters. Lynn Davis theorized The September 11 attacks and the anthrax incidents that occurred in autumn 2001 understandably demonstrated to Americans that the possibility of becoming a victim of terrorism is very real. This new awareness has generated

Trends in Arabic Music Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Trends in Arabic Music - Essay ExampleTrends in Arabic Music Music The Arabic music that is now heard is known for the rich styles, evolution of best-selling(predicate) trends and different implications within the entertainment industry. Recently, the popular music has expanded into international reaches that atomic number 18 able to make up the ideologies of the culture. This moves into the folkloric elements, which use particular instrumentation and rhythms which are known throughout Arabia. These melodic productions are unite with the newer elements of technology, specifically with the ability to present the music through performances, television and other multimedia images. Combining these factors has allowed the trends in Arabic music to expand and to move into the popular ideologies that reflect the culture while allowing the music to be champion which is equal to the popular concepts that are now used within society (Aziz, 1). There are some(prenominal) divisions with the popular Arabic music which continue to set trends throughout the region. The first is known as Rai, which is the closely accepted type of music in the founding today, specifically because it associates with the folk type instruments and rhythms while feature with the technology of today. . This is combined with the Sudanese and Nubian rhythms that are within the society, both which consist of fast paced rhythms, polyphonic accents and movements in the music that are specific to the Arabic culture. The rise of Arabic popular music however, was led by the Egyptian style music through pop stars such as Amr Diab. This has created a hybrid of the Rai and specific rhythms while combining the tribal lives with the up to date electronics known to many as the new world music (Werner, 1). Creating a Musical Style The overall trends in popular music have likewise led to specific styles which are now identified as Arabic in nature. This consists of both images and sounds which are used among Arabic music and which distinguish the various features of those that are listening to the music. The first part of this is base on combining the current situations with the ideologies of musical style within the region. The strong commitment to religion, secular beliefs with neck and fulfillment in life and leisure activities is the main themes which are presented among those interested in the popular music. This is combined with the ideologies of art, leisure and entertainment as reflecting the ideas of society specifically with making statements about the beliefs and conditions which are in the region. The musical style is then able to create a hybrid role with the folkloric elements that drive the rhythm and sound while creating a style that is reflective of the themes of religion and relationships within the Arabic world (Neiuwkerk, 169). Another component which is now reflected in the musical style is coming from the ideal of moving into globalization. Many of the mu sical styles are now reflecting the elements of hybrid forms of art and transcultural realities. There are several popular trends which are viewing this with the musical styles that are present within society. For instance, reality TV is creating a sense of critical transculturalism, which is base on political, economic and cultural changes of the time. Politically and economically, the Arabic world has changed into one which is intertwined with the associations of the Western world and

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Interest group Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interest group - Essay ExampleLack of attention by the sex act has paralyzed implementation. It is very crucial to address these problems to avoid further loopholes that accommodate handout by the supernumerary interest groups, for example, the American Civil Liberties Union which fights for the rights of immigrants. Although the judicature is working hard in securing the border, more squiffy laws need to be put in place to fully take charge of the situation. Dempsey and Forst (341) elaborate that enquiry shows that there are more than ten million illegal immigrants in the country. This means that the federal government is not working hard enough. Another failure by the government is the lack of reforms in the endorse section. It has failed to command that those people who get into the country on a temporary visa do not stay in the country permanently.According to Nownes (218), interest groups are people who have come unneurotic with similar interests who try their best to in fluence public policy. They are very important to democracy in that they represent the views of the citizens and also allow the people to have a chance of their voices being heard. In the environmental policy, an example of the interest group is the American Council for an energy efficient economy. It works towards ensuring that the economy prospers with a protected environment.Environment and energy are areas that have managed to capture a lot of interest from the citizens including interest groups. It is a policy that is determined by the federal, local entities and the state. They tackle the issues of production of energy, consumption, as well as distribution. The responsibilities take determining gas lineage standard and also building codes. The problems in energy and environment include poor government incentives and poor legislation. Being a sensitive sector, more attention is required to ensure that all citizens can enjoy a favorable environment that is clean, safe and heal thy for all. It is important for the

Saturday, April 20, 2019

LL Bean Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

LL Bean - field of study Study ExampleBeyond that maximum carnal number, there is no way for the physical terminus to find come come to the fore of the closet what the real pauperism is if all customers potential customers were provided with the amount that they want. If the inventory runs out, then the bloodline can re-order, but there is really no way of knowing whether while the good is out of occupation more people want that particular good or not, because there is no catalogue or mechanism for the store to demonstrate what an out of stock good looks like, unless there is a physical sample and the physical stores have an supply on prerequisite option. Moreover, in a physical store, the audience for a particular good is limited to those who physically go to the stores to view the merchandise, limiting the potential supplicate to the shop frequenters. In contrast, LL Bean, by making the catalogs avail adequate for the duration of a season, and allowing for orders, is ab le to get hold of the motive for a larger subset of potential customers. In this case this demand is more real or comprehensive than the more limited demand subset that the physical store is able to address/cover. On the other hand, wiz can also say that the audience for the good is limited to those who receive the catalogs. In this sense this demand is arguably not universal enough. Moreover, from the point of view of being able to satisfy all demand, the argumentation needs to be qualified. Demand forecasting is part art in LL Bean, as has been demonstrated in the study, and even with the use of A/F and probability distributions for probable demand there are many a(prenominal) an(prenominal) opport social unities to overshoot targets. This is especially true when the costs associated with overstocking on an item are larger than the costs of understocking, or being conservative on demand projections. In the case where stocks on hand turn out to be larger than the actual dema nd, then one can say that LL Bean is indeed able to capture the true demand, with the caveats on the limits of catalog marketing being able to capture all come-at-able demand as discussed above (Schleifer, 1992, pp. 1-5). Question 2 Recording demand for an item that is out of stock may not have much of a bearing in that current season, given that for many of the items there is a long lag time for deliveries that replenishing out of stock items during the current season is very much not feasible. First if it were feasible to restock within the season, obviously not being able to capture demand for an item that is out of stock means that the company misses out on any spare sales tied to that non-captured demand. The company is unable to know how many of that out of stock item to reorder. Second, for almost items that cannot be replenished during the season, the implications for LL Bean are with regard to being able to nature future demand and chemical element them into the forec asts. This is so because from the case itself, LL Bean uses historical actual demand and forecast demand figures as a weighting factor to determine how many to order of individual items for the coming seasons. If LL Bean is unable to record demand for items that are out of stock, then they are no different from operations that are strictly based on physical stores, and their future demand forecasts then become continuously flawed and wide Such inability to record out of stock demand translates to perpetual misses in future forecasts for the demand for that out of stock item. This has consequences for the companys profits obviously (Schleifer, 1992, pp. 1-5). Question 3 The marginal unit profit for a sale of the shirt is $ 25. This is selling price minus cost. The marginal unit divergence for a non-sale is $15. This is cost minus liquidation price per shirt. The most

Friday, April 19, 2019

The Unredeemed Captive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Unredeemed Captive - Essay ExampleYoung as she was, she was taken to Canada on with other 100 captives from Deerfield. The raid was later named the Deerfield Massacre. The story of Eunice reveals the experiences of New England including how the colonial events impacted the Indians, English, and French or colonists both negatively and positively.Eunice, a missy of a crucial person, was captured by French soldiers to be use in a part exchange deal. The raid was organized by the governor of New France, who wanted to rescue a British captive named Capt. Pierre Baptiste. Captain had attacked British ships on the Atlantic margin on behalf of the French authorities. In an attempt to save the captain, the New French decided to capture an definitive British pris onenessr. French authorities obtained Eunice in order to get the captain from the British authorities. Capturing the daughter to one of the powerful and influential people in England was an effective and logical that would pr ompt the English authorities to carry on with the French.Eunices captivity had an adverse impact on the people of Deerfield. According to Haefeli and Sweeney, they had lost a daughter to their prominent minister and some of their populations. They grieved and were in sorrow.2 In an attempt to free his daughter, John Williams tried to influence the French authorities to release her daughter, but his attempts proved futile. To add to that, Eunice, after being fully assimilated into the Indian culture, decided to stay away from home. Her decision was followed by numerous futile attempts by both his pal and father to convince her to come home. Consequently, her refusal to go back home became the primary source of her familys misery. by from Eunice, several young Deerfield captives never returned to their families, but instead joined either the French authorities or the Native American society.The captivity of Eunice had a positive impact on the Indian people. They were overjoyed and

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Bussiness memo Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Bussiness memo - Assignment ExampleIn pain of the fact that the essentials of satellite correspondences atomic number 18 reasonably clear, there is a colossal financing needed in building the satellite and propelling it into space (Verma et al ). All things considered numerous correspondences satellites exist in carrousel around the globe and they are generally utilized for an assortment of requisitions from giving satellite telecommunications connections to guide boob tube and the utilization of satellite telephone and singular satellite correspondence joins.However, satellite correspondences frameworks reveal huge levels of adaptability and versatility give the open doors to numerous satellite interchanges frameworks (Macy et al ). In spite of the fact that the beginning base expenses are high, frequently rising remote stations could be included moderately economically as new lines dont have to be introduced to give correspondence to the new remote station, not at all give care wire based telecommunications frameworks or numerous physical remote connections were repeater stations may be required.Here the satellite empowers correspondences to be created over substantial separations - well past the viewable pathway. Correspondences satellites may be utilized for some requisitions including transferring phone calls, giving interchanges to remote territories of the Earth, giving satellite interchanges to ships, flying machine and separate portable vehicles, and there are a lot of people more courses in which interchanges satellites could be utilized (Helfers 415).Verma, Ajeet Singh, et al. Measurement of reliability and availability of satellite communication links Progress and challenges.Intelligent Systems and Signal bear on (ISSP), 2013 International Conference on. IEEE,

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Grapes of Wrath Book Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Grapes of Wrath Book Review - Essay ExampleThe condition was so ghastly and it had washed-up the crops and instigated massive foreclosure on the land. The time was harder particularly in Oklahoma. It was a faulty farming method and dr bug outh which resulted into wind erosion of the topsoil. Consequently the Great Plains in the region became The Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was caused by agricultural malpractices as well as years of sustained drought and incessant strong winds. (Bernd Steiner 2007) It was the mop condition especially for the tenant farmers. They had been pushed off their land, as they were not able to pay the rent to the banks. many an(prenominal) agricultural workers left for calcium in search of a rich and fertile land. The journey towards California is very long and gruelling. Grandpa of the family does not want to live his original place and he is everlastingly complaining bitterly. He dies during their journey. Sairy is sick and showed inability to move forward t o the journey. Their dreams of beneficial fortune get bust as soon as they reached to California. The number of jobs was lesser than the number of farmers, i.e. 800 jobs against 20,000 people. The entire family experienced another(prenominal) bereavement of life when they reached to California. ... Tom Joad is the protagonist of this novel. He is a man of thirty and has just come out of prison. He had been convicted for murdering a man during a fight four years back. He is good natured and a source of vitality for his family, apart from his 4 years stay in prison. He earns honour from his family as well as from the other workers whom he assembled together to form workers organization. opposite characters include Toms parents Ma Joad and Pa Joad. Ma Joad is like a citadel of the family. Pa Joad though sensible and good natured, sometimes feels ashamed of his weaker position. Jim Casy is depicted as a former preacher and a staunch conversancy of Tom. Rose of Sharon is the eldest daughter of Ma and Pa Joads and she is depicted earlier as a amorous lady but then she has to face many troubles in her life. She faces harsh realities after the death of her upstart born baby, and the abandonment from her husband, she become quite matured and sensible. She represents the harsh life of the migrants. The character of Joads grandfather is sketched in a black shade. He is violent tempered and mean. This meanness is now limited to his tongue, probably due to his old age. He gets pleasure in tormenting others by his harsh talk. Unlike him his wife gran Joad is pious. Ivy and Sairy Wilson is a good couple who met the Joads during their journey to California. They helped them by lending their tents to the Joad family so that Grandpa could direct got comfortable place to die. There was a good relationship and mutual cooperation between the two families. Other members of Joad family included Toms elder brother Noah, uncle John, and second younger daughter Ruthie and Wi nfield Joad. Muley Graves is another character who is the

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Parental Involvement, Poverty, and Student Achievement Essay Example for Free

Parental Involvement, Poverty, and Student exertion EssayCurrent education reform is intended to influence higher learner achievement. According to Hanushek (1997), the breeding of tame reform is largely motivated by economic issues. program line reform becomes a purposeful topic on the national agenda when the National Commission on Excellence in Education issued a extend, A Nation At Risk (1983). This report focused on the claim that a steady increase in mediocrity had overcome schools which impacted upon the economic competitiveness of the country.One congressman of this competitiveness was when the Soviet Union 1957 launched Sputnik. It was concluded that declines in educational performance were in large classify the result of inadequacies in the way the educational subprogram was conducted. The findings that follow, selected from a much more than extensive list, reflect four important aspects of the educational process content, expectations, time, and teaching. The United States government responded by beginning reform of how its educational system.As part of this process, all segments, including parent committees, were formed to give attention to the implementation of the recommendations of the report. The report just stated that reform should non only come from learners, instructors, school boards, colleges and universities, local, state, and federal officials, teachers and administrators organizations, but also from parents themselves with raise in and responsibility for educational significance begin with the parent.Moreover, you bear a responsibility to participate actively in your shavers education. You should throw prohibited more diligent study and discourage satisfaction with mediocrity and the attitude that says let it slide, monitor your childs study encourage good study habits encourage your child to strickle more demanding rather than slight demanding courses nurture your childs curiosity, creativity, and confidence a nd be an active participant in the stool of the schools. Above all, exhibit a commitment to continued information in your own life.Finally, help your children understand that excellence in education can non be achieved without intellectual and example integrity coupled with hard work and commitment (p. 26) Henderson and Berla (1994) did extensive research linking maternal(p) involvement to student achievement. There are a variety of parenting practices that pitch been associated with positive student outcomes. Despite this research, Desimone (2001) contends that there is unperturbed no clear understanding of how patterns and effects of agnatic involvement differ across ethnic and income groups. preceding studies have shown that parent involvement patterns vary according to parental social, racial-ethnic, and economic characteristics (Catsambis Garland, 1997), but the findings have been mixed. several(prenominal) studies have describe that low income nonage parents often ha ve different beliefs about parents role in school involvement are less involved in school activities than higher income, non-minority parents (Delgado-Gaitan, 1991 Chavkin Williams, 1993). Other studies, however, have demonstrated that the level of parent involvement by race-ethnicity (i. e., Asian, African-American, Hispanic, and white) differs for only a few types of involvement and that minority parents have higher levels of involvement in certain areas than do white parents (Catsambis Garland, 1997). Previous studies have describe that low-income minority parents often have different beliefs regarding parental roles in school involvement and are less involved (Chavkin Williams, 1993). Comer and Haynes (1991) have hypothesized that low income and inner city minority students may be more positively affected by certain types of parent involvement than other students.According to them, in frame for parental involvement programs to be supremacyful, they need to be focused upon a school improvement process that is designed to create positive relationships that support the total development of children and not the traditional bureaucratic or authoritative school environment which is a less collaborative structure. Other theorists (Devaney, Ellwood, and Love, 1997 Lewit, Terman, Behrman, 1997) suggests that parental involvement may not be as effective in improving student achievement for low income children as for children from middle class homes.Because the large number of risk factors that impact upon children living in poverty, including health, safety, and housing, the role of parental involvement in schools in explaining academic outcomes for those children may be significantly less than for their peers who do not experience as many negative environment influences. Desimone (2001) suggests that race-ethnicity and other background characteristics can be buckram mediators in the effects of various types of parental actions and the impact they have on s tudent achievement.While work in this area is limited, there is little information that compares the effects of multiple forms of parental involvement across several racial/ethnic and income groups. McNeals (2001) study investigated the relationships between parent involvement and socioeconomic status. Findings indicated that parental involvement was an important factor in explaining behavioral outcomes (such as truancy and dropping out) but not cognitive outcomes (such as science achievement), with the greatest support for parent child discussion and involvement in parent-teacher organizations.He contends that there have been inconsistencies with the findings linking parental involvement to academic achievement. The contradictions likely were related to one of the by-line weaknesses in research. The first condition was the use of scholarship measures by teachers rather than direct reports by students and/or parents. Another was a failure to fully conceptualize parent involvement into its constituent parts. The last was not fully assessing the extent to which parental involvement differently affects academic achievement by social class.The third shortcomings can be improved upon but parent involvement has little effect on student achievement because it is a cognitive outcome and parental involvement affects behavioral outcomes. Reginald Clarks research shares findings from a body of research on closing achievement gaps in urban school communities (Ferguson, Clark, Stewart, 2002). In Clark documents the greatness of five influential factors for improved students achievement, especially among disadvantages urban students.The first factor is described as the teachers expectations and actions in the schoolroom. The second is amount of students weekly participation in high-yield in and out of school activities. High-yield out of school activities include leisure reading, writing, studying, and participation in community and school clubs or programs, and perfo rming organised sports. High-yield in school activities include participating in classroom lessons as well as structured leisure activities. The third factor is the quality of students participation in and out of school activities.The after part factor is parental beliefs and expectations. The fifth factor is parent-teacher communication. Ferguson, Clark and Stewart, 2002 found that the type and amounts of constructive in school and out of school schooling activities contribute to a success-oriented lifestyle. More specifically, Clark found that high achieving activities. Some examples of actions in the classroom include reading, working alone on a lesson, listening to a lecture, solving a fuss with classmates, or asking questions.Ferguson, Clark and Stewart, 2002 found that high achievers spent more time during out of school high-yield learning activities than low achievers. Some activities include weekly time dialoguing with adults, hobby or volunteer activities, or organized sports. Regular study and homework routines, with adult monitoring or support, and reading and writing activities also were seen as practices in the home. Some less structured or unstructured activities include hanging out, playing image games, talking on the telephone, and watching television.Ferguson, Clark and Stewart 2002 found that the beliefs and attitudes of parents had a significant role in student success in becoming competent readers. The analysis of data from parents of 459 students about their expectations for their childs learning and their perception of whether they had been supported by their childs teacher showed that students benefit when parents set high standards for their childs performance in school and feel personally supported by partnerships they have formed with their childs teacher.Lastly, Clark indicates that parent beliefs are likely to be influenced by parent-teacher communication. In other words, parents may benefits from well-organized teacher-led com munications. When teachers take specific actions to cultivate instructional partnerships with parents, those parents are more likely to support their childrens learning at home. Clarks data showed that students scores were higher on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment in reading when teachers reported more communication with parents.REFERENCES Bankston, C. L. , Caldas, S. J. (1998). Family structure, schoolmates, and racial inequalities in school achievement. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 715-723. Braswell. J. S. , Lutkus,A. D. , Grigg,W. S. , Santapau, S. L. , Tay-Lim, B. , Johnson, M. (2001). Subgroup results for the nation and the states. In The nations report card Mathematics 2000 (pp. 53-181). Washington DC U. S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National totality for Education Statistics.

Jury Nullification Paper Essay Example for Free

Jury nullification Paper moveJury nullification is a constitutional ism that allows juries to acquit defendants who are technically criminals iniquitous, but who do non deserve punishment. It occurs in a trial when a instrument panel reaches a verdict verso to the judges instructions as to the truth. A control board verdict contrary to the letter of the rectitude does non belong except to the particular case before it. If a pattern of acquittals, how ever, develops in response to iterate attempts to prosecute a statutory offense, it nates fuddle the de facto effect of invalidating the statute. A pattern of control panel nullification may indicate public opposition to an unwanted legislative enactment. In the past, it was feared that may unduly influence a judge alone or a panel of public officials to follow formal legal practice, even if much(prenominal) practice had drifted from its origins. In most modern Western legal systems, however, very(prenominal) muc h instruct juries only serve as finders of facts, whose role is to determine the vera urban center of the evidence, and the weight accorded to evidence, to implement these tests the virtue and reach a verdict, but not decide what the jurisprudence is .Jury Nullification It is not only the jurors right, but his duty to find the verdict according to his own best understanding, judgment, and conscience, though in direct opposition to the direction of the court. This is what John Adams said of dialog box nullification. John Jay, who was the first evaluator of the Supreme Court said, The panel has the right to judge both the law as well as the fact in controversy. So what is venire nullification and how does it influence courtroom proceedings and judicial practices? The translation of jury nullification according to thefreedictionary.com website jury nullification is defined as a sanctioned doctrine wherein members of ajury disregard either the evidence presented or the instruction s of the judge in severalise to reach a verdict based upon their own consciences.It espouses the concept that jurors should be the judges of both law and fact. The doctrine of jury nullification is based one important things, one that a juror can never be punished for the verdict they bring binding to the judge, and second that a defendant cannot ever be retried once the jury has returned to the courtroom with a not censurable verdict. The first case of jury nullification in British law dates back to 1670 in trial of William Mead and William Penn, (William Penn would later go on to be the founder of the Province of Pennsylvania) these two men were charged in England for unlawful assembly, which was a law that was aimed at preventing different religious groups that were not noticed by the crown from worshipping. Both of these men were understandably guilty of breaking the law according to British law and the judge presiding over the case demanded that the jury find William Mean an d William Penn guilty, but the jury refused to find these two men guilty because they felt that the law itself Jury Nullification was unjust. The judge continued to insist that the jury find these two men guilty, and the jury repeatedly refused, the judge became so infuriated with the jurors that he threw the jurors in prison.The highest court in England ordered that the jurors be released and established into common law the integrity of jurors in criminal cases. In America the Founding Fathers acknowledge the relevance of letting jurors determine not only the guilt or innocence of the person on trial, but the fairness of the law in which the person is charged with breaking. In more recent cases, in California a jury convicted Ed Rosenthal in two-thousand three of outgrowth marijuana which was a invasion of federal law. During the case the jury did not know and was never allowed to hear that not only was Ed Rosenthal growing medical marijuana for medical patients, but he was gro wing and harvesting the marijuana for the city of Oakland, California. When the trial ended and the jury found out the true facts of the case they were outraged and the foreman of the jury was quoted in the New York Times as saying it is the most horrible mistake I have ever made in my entire life. Should Ed Rosenthal been convicted of growing marijuana? I feel that he should not have been convicted and the jury had a right to know the truth about who Ed Rosenthal was growing the marijuana for and for who it was being provided to.Another case would be that of RichardPen of Florida, who is fortune a twenty-five category prison sentence in Florida for distribution of a controlled substance. Richard Pen was a forty-six year gray paraplegic man who became a paraplegic after being involved in a very serious car accident that badly damaged his back, and after having back surgery that did not go as planned, Richard Pen was left in indescribable amounts of pain. Richard Pen realized that Jury Nullification. He could de zippyr his pain by taking large amounts of opiate painkillers, but the amount of medicinal drug his doctor had prescribed him was not enough, and they could not prescribe him anymore because it would exceed the amount of what his doctor could legally prescribe.Richard Paey felt that he had no choice but to obtain the practice of medicine illegally and he began photocopying the prescription and used them to get his medication from local pharmacies. Richard Paey was arrested and was charged with distribution of a controlled substance, but he never sold the medication, and never gave the medication a agency, he only used the medication for himself so that he could live somewhat of a convention existence and be free from the excruciating pain that he was in. But once again because of the way the laws are written the jury had no choice but to return to the court with a guilty verdict.In these two cases, I do feel that they did break the law, but should they have been found guilty of the charges against them? I do not feel that they should, and if the jurors were allowed to hear the truth about these cases these two men, Ed Rosenthal, and Richard Paey would not be serving time in prison, and since the Supreme Court ruled that prosecutors on the federal direct can continue to arrest and charge people who use medical marijuana, you should expect to see more and more cases like this crowding up our courtrooms. You will probably see more and more cases such as Richard Paey, and other patients like him who are just trying to manage their pain and try to live somewhat of a normal life crowding up our courtrooms as well.So what can us as citizens do to tease apart the injustice of the Richard Paeys and the Ed Rosenthals? Well unless you are serving on a jury panel, nothing, but if you happen to get a jury Jury Nullification Summons in the mail, do not ignore it as I have done numerous, many times before although I did have valid reaso ns for not being able to serve as a juror, I had a disabled parent and I was his sole caregiver, instead send back the summons stating that you are available to serve as a juror, and who knows you might be able to undo someof the injustices of the judicial system, and keep an innocent person from serving a lengthy prison sentence.Referenceshttp//legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/jury+nullification http//www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,163877,00.html http//www.lewrockwell.com/orig10/emal1.1.1.html

Monday, April 15, 2019

Life in the Trenches Essay Example for Free

Life in the Trenches Essay organismness War One, alike known as the Great War, was a state of struggle that would alteration all(a) warfares. neer in the history of humanity had on that point been a war fought in such a manor, and it would change the way all wars that followed it were fought. World War I was expected to be a relatively in brief war, as those in the past had been, and a war of great battles and move handst. However WWI was typified by its deficiency of movement, days of stalemates and great battles that turned out to be massive slaughters where hund blood-reds of thousands of men died for a very small fall upon in territory. The intimately important aspect of WWI that made it so unique was its uptake of a in the buff tactic of digging a series of connecting oceanic abysses that carved up the landscape of the Western and Eastern fronts. This use of trenches by both the Allies and the Germans was one of the primary reasons that WWI lasted as long as it did. Life in the trenches was a horrifying experience for any man who served in the Great War. The terrible conditions in the trenches would just be fully known by the public after the war was over in young 1918. The armies of the Allies had strict rules against the public gaining knowledge of the details of the war and used many methods to pr in timet them acute the the true. subsequently the Battle of the Marne in September 1914, the German army was rampd to retreat. They had failed in their objective to force France into and early surrender and rather than give up the land that they had gained they dug into the base to secure their eyeshot and protect themselves from the Allie fire. Because the Germans were at an advantage of being able to fire at the Allies from below ground level because of this the Allies could not break the German trench line. It was apparent that the Germans would not be aloof the Allies followed the German example and dug their own trenches. It was this event that halted movement on both sides and changed the look of warfare forever. Trenches soon stretched across the countryside and spread from the North Sea to Switzerland.Trench life soon became as mentally and physically taxing on soldiers as the actual fighting element of the war. Disease, rats, lice, and boredom became a part of daily life for a soldier in the trenches. After the war was over at that place were many accounts from soldiers of the appalling conditions and the amount of death that occurred in the trenches. It was estimated that up toone third of Allied casualties on the Western Front were actually sustained in the trenches . Aside from injuries caused by the enemy, disease accounted for a rangy amount of that total.Many accounts from soldiers of their time worn-out(a) in the trenches are dominated by an emphasis on the amount of mud. Living in the trenches soldiers were seldom clean and when they were they did not stay that way for very long. Because o f the lack of sanitary conditions in the trenches men suffered from many pests such as rats and frogs as good as to a greater extent harmful things like lice and diseases like trench foot and shell shock. The rats in the trenches became a problem for the soldiers because there was no way to avoid them or get dislodge of them. A single pair of rats could green groceries almost 900 offspring in a year so the infestation continued throughout the war. Rats in the trenches were rumoured to have grown as large as cats on occasion, from eating or stealing garbage and feeding off the corpses of dead soldiers. Because the rats became so fearless the men in the trenches came to loathe them and often spent free time killing them and setting traps .Yet another annoying pest was the lice that continually plagued the men. Soldiers could sink up to an hour a day burning the lice off their bodies and clothes in an attempt to rid themselves of the pests but the effort was all in vain because the y would only be re-infested the next day. Occasionally the men were sent to clean themselves in large baths while their clothes were being put through delousing machines. Unfortunately, this rarely worked a fair proportion of the eggs remained in the clothes and within two or triad hours of the clothes being put on again a mans body heat had hatched them out.Because of the always muddy conditions the men often walked around in mud and water sometimes covering as far up as their knees or waists. During the early part of the war over 20,000 men were enured for a condition that became known as trench foot. This was an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and unsanitary conditions. Without being able to remove wet socks or boots the feet would gradually go numb and the skin would turn red or blue. If untreated, trench foot could turn gangrenous and result inamputation. The only remedy for trench foot was for the soldiers to dry their feet and change their socks several times a d ay. By the end of 1915 British soldiers in the trenches had to have three pairs of socks with them and were under orders to change their socks at least twice a day. As well as drying their feet, soldiers were told to cover their feet with grease made from whale oil.The Allies needed to make sure that there would be no additional factors that would affect the morale at home news of the conditions that the soldiers were forced to merry in and the continuing stalemates would surely do that. If trustnce in the war effort was diminished and the honor or so the trenches was known there would be fewer new recruits and the Allies would be challenged to keep up with the Germans numbers. Most soldiers during the war chose to conceal the horrors of the trench warfare not wishing to expose their families to it. But those who wished to confide in family members and try to share with them their experiences were prevented from doing so by new laws that were put into place. The House of Commons passed the self-renunciation of the Realm manage on August 8th 1914 without debate .The Act gave the governing executive tycoon to suppress criticism, imprison without trial and commandeer economic resources for the war effort. As a result all letters that the men wrote were read and censored by the junior officers. Although soldiers were encouraged to write letters to friends and family, the limit of the letters were monitored strictly by the junior officers in accordance with the new laws guidelines. Anything that disclosed information about military action would be removed to ensure that the Allies plans could not get to the Germans. The junior officers were also instructed to remove anything from the letters that discussed the conditions of the trenches or insinuated that the soldiers did not have faith in the actions that were being taken by the army. The members of parliament believed that if family members were to receive letters of that nature the morale in Britain woul d be effected which would affect the war effort all together.Britain and France also had problems deciding what to do about journalists who were reporting the war. Originally under the defence reaction of the Realm Act Britain put strict limitations on all reporters often preventing theirarticles from making it back to Britain from France. After complaints from the USA on how the British government was treating the situation a cabinet meeting was held to change the insurance and to allow selected journalists to report the war. The British government appointed five men to be accredited war correspondents in January of 1915. These men were to remain on the Western Front but to be permitted to do so these journalists had to accept government control over what they wrote. As a result of government interference even the disastrous first day of the Battle of the Somme was reported as a victory.Although some defended their actions saying that they were attempting to tautological the feel ings of men and women, who, have sons and husbands fighting in France most of the journalists admitted that they were deeply ashamed of what they had written. After the war most of the accredited war correspondents were offered knighthoods by George V. Some agreed to accept the offer but others like Hamilton Fyfe refused seeing the knighthood as a bribe to keep quiet about the inefficiency and corruption he had witnessed during the war. Fyfe would later bewilder a member of the Union of Democratic Control after the war, and would speak out as a strong critic of the Versailles Peace Treaty .There were a few other instances of the British government preventing criticism of the war from being published. In 1916 the Clyde Workers Committee journal, called The Worker, was brought to court under the Defence of the Realm Act for an article that criticized the war. The two editors of the journal were found guilty and sent to prison, one for six months and the other for a year .Critical no vels that were written during the war were prevented from being published or criminalise if they did make it to publication. A.T. Fitzroys scorn and Rejected, about conscientious objectors during WWI, was published in April 1918. A thousand copies were sold before the book was banned and the publisher prosecuted under the Defence of the Realm Act. Another novel, What Not A Prophetic Comedy by Rose Macaulay, which ridiculed wartime bureaucracy, was prevented from being published near the end of 1918. Instead it was not published until after the Armistice.So although the conditions for the men who fought in the First World War were horrific, the public did not realize the sacrifices that had been made for their liberty on a daily basis. The suppression of the truth by the British government is a polemical topic that is still debated today. Whether or not the British were justified in preventing the public from knowing the truth it was inevitably disclosed after the wars conclusion . The images seen and the conditions endured plagued on many mens minds after the war was over. The Great War, a war that was to be one of heroic battles and great movement, turned into a war remembered for its lack of movement, its number of casualties and the conditions that had to be endured. World War One changed the way all wars after it were fought, but not for the better.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Personal Definition of Honesty Essay Example for Free

Personal Definition of H starsty EssayWhats the definition of satin flower? The one in Websters Dictionary says that it isThe quality or fact of being upright uprightness and impartiality truthfulness, sincerity, or frankness freedom from deceit or fraud (Honesty). However, each person whitethorn make honesty differently. Everybody has his/hers own definition that varies upon his/her be populatefs. Some think of it as a main rule of their life, provided still tell a little white lying once in a while. Others provoke not notwithstanding identify themselves with honesty. The truth is that being honest is extremely hard and not dissimulation at all is impossible.Everybody lies, as yet politically significant hoi polloi responsible for the nations well being, who are viewed by the society as icons of trust. People lie on a daily basis, in fact sometimes not realizing that they do it so often it is second nature. Some of the lies may be innocent. For instance, some may li e not to hurt somebodys feelings. A lack of honesty would not be such a big problem, though, if that were the point w here(predicate) it ends.Some people consider that telling a little white lie doesnt hurt anything, exactly still get annoyed and irritated when somebody lies to them. If they expect others to be honest with them why cant they pay back in the same way? Usually humans lie for personal gain and self-interest. For instance, some may lie because they are ashamed of the things they have done and do not want or are afraid to grimace the consequences. A good example here is Bill Clinton, who in 2004 lied about his affair with Monica Lewinsky to both the nation and the grand jury. People hide, can and omit the facts. They care less what effect it may have on others. In this case they arent proficient dishonest and selfish but also show a lack of integrity.On the other hand, people may lie because they want to be a part of group. As Stephen L. Carter writes in his article The want of Honesty, integrity may be often a fake honesty (106). For example, humans lie to run somebody or put up facades to look better in others eyes. They agree with other peoples statements, even if those vary from their own beliefs, simply because they want to be accepted.Further more than, throughout history people could experience deceit from many, if not all U.S. presidents. For instance, Richard Nixon lied because he was trying to save his presidency, which was imperiled by his misdeeds. Franklin Delano Roosevelt misled the country over things akin Lend-Lease in order to advance a policy he thought would save the world, but which he knew would be difficult to sell politically ( Cannon 57). During World War II in 1944, President Roosevelt lied to the public about his health condition, simply to hide his weakness from opponents. All of that proves that even people, to whom public trust is given, in the hope of better future of the country, arent any different from regul ar people. As Carl M. Cannon writes in his article Untruth and Consequences Presidents lie because they are human (58).Moreover, in a modern political world, it is difficult to distinguish the truth from a lie. For example, taking under consideration the war in Iraq, people are constantly confused with the news delivered to them. The Republicans say that everything is under control and without a interrogative sentence U.S. is winning the war with terrorism. On the other hand, Democrats talk about the unquestionable failure of the American array and government, as well as undisputable chaos it has caused in the Middle East. Those two versions prove that one of the sides is definitely lying. In this case the lack of honesty is very high and lives of U.S. soldiers as well as prosperity of the country might be at stake. Politicians should put aside their personal-interests and do what is right, because the consequences of their dishonesty may be too high to bear.Even though the defin ition of honesty here differs from the one in dictionary, many people will agree with it. Everybody knows from the experience how hard it is to go at least a day without telling a lie it is impossible. All the people are built from the same stiff they all lie. It doesnt matter who a person is or what he/she does. Some may be more sensitive about it and would rather have a clean conscience, when others will keep lying without idea twice. But everybody has to remember that the bigger the lie coming out of their mouth, the larger the consequences they will have to face in the future. Because as my mom used to say, a lie has short legs one cant go far or gain much by lying, and if so it will be only temporary. deeds CitedCannon, Carl M. Untruth and Consequences. The Atlantic. Jan/Feb. 2007 56-67.Carter, Stephen L. The Insufficiency of Honesty. 50 essays A Portable Anthology. 2nd ed. Ed.Samuel Cohen. Boston Bedford/ St. Martins, 2007. 104-111.Honesty. Websters online Dictionary. 2007. Websters Dictionary. 29 Jan 2007.httpwww.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/honesty.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Why Go To College Essay Example for Free

Why Go To College EssayWhat influenced me to attend college? My Grandparents have tried to get me to go to college for umpteen years. However, I didnt have much interest in furthering my education. I was a nanny for on the button about seven years, and had hopes of making that my life story, until I was charged with a felony. That put an abrupt end to a career in any form of childcare.So after spending the next two years in treatment, I came to the conclusion that going to college would be the best way for me to achieve my new interest of constituent others with their chemical dependency addictions. Your future starts here(www.grad.pci.uta.edu). There are a lot of colleges that use that soak up phrase.My future without college became bring to me when witnessing two brothers that came from the same background. One attended college and the other chose not to, and began his own superman business. With the event of 9-11, his business went under. Without an education beyond H igh School, he has not been able to find important employment and is currently living in a camper and doing odd jobs. The other brother, that attended college, is flat an executive in a major corporation and is living in a mansion. It became clear to me that in order to get into the field I am enkindle in and make a decent living, I would need to further my education.The difference in the annual income between someone with just a high school diploma and someone with a Bachelors Degree is huge. Statistics give that High School graduates on average make $33,176 a year, and someone with a Bachelors Degree can make $54,756 on average per year.(www.ohe.state.mn.us, Facts About Income of Graduates, Minnesota Office of Higher Education, troop 23, 2012, web, Aug. 2013) Now thats quite a difference. I chose to compare these two things because a Bachelors Degree is what I would need to get into the field I may possibly be interested in. Im still unsure of a specific major that I would li ke to pursue. chemical Dependency Counseling is an interest of my mine, but Im still undecided. So thats another(prenominal) plus with going to college, they offer courses that are meant to help someone whos unsure about what they fatality to do with their future, find something that interests them. I have found that college is not as easy as I once thought.There are many things or activities one must give up or put on hold while attending college, but a little studying straight will lead to a better future later. Mainly what I hope to gain by attending college,is not only a higher education, but also a skill settle and the discipline to build a career in the field I choose, rather than just having a minimum wage job.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Rates of reaction - molarity Essay Example for Free

Rates of chemical substance reaction molarity EssayChemis crusade Coursework Rates of chemical reaction molarity (Concentration) Aim to find protrude if the concentration of HCl affects the amount of hydrogen bluster given despatch when a atomic number 12 strip is added. Apparatus Gas syringe to give birth all the screw up from the reaction and measure it Test tube to hold the two reactants Measuring cylinder to measure amount of piss and pungent Stop watch to prison term the reaction Delivery tube to deliver the hydrogen into the grease-gun syringe Ruler + Scissors to measure and have sex the magnesium Reactants Magnesium strip Hydrochloric acid 2HCl + Mg H2 + MgCl2 Preliminary WorkFrom preliminary work I have found come on that using 20 cm3 of acid and using 2 cm of magnesium for 1 minute gives off sufficient gas to measure accu computely and I also found that for the molarity I should not go scorn than 0. 6 as on that point of gas given off will be too slow. This is how I did the try out I set up the experiment as shown above Added 2 cm of magnesium strip to 20 cm3 of HCl I then wrote down the volume of the gas every(prenominal) 5 secs for 1 minute of the reaction Use concentrations M to see which would be suitable. Scientific KnowledgeA chemical reaction needs reactant particles to collide successfully for it to take place. For the chance of a successful collision to take place more frequent collisions need to occur. These four factors affect the frequency of collisions therefore affecting the rate of reaction Concentration there are more acid particles in the same volume so they are more potential to collide with the magnesium particles. Temperature when the temperature is join ond the particles gain kinetic energy, which means the particles exalt more which in turn means they are more likely to collide successfully.Surface force field a larger bob up are means more particles are exposed. Therefore as larger number of collisions occur Catalyst the catalyst lowers the amount of energy needed for a collision without taking part therefore more successful collisions will take place. However I am wholly testing concentration so from this knowledge I know that the higher the concentration the more likely that the particles will collide. Prediction I believe that as the molarity lights so will the speed at which the gas collects. I point this beca intake of my preliminary work and scientific knowledge.This knowledge is that as the concentration increases there are more particles in the same volume so then there will be more successful collision. This means the volume of gas collected in the first minute should decrease as the concentration decreases. Set up the experiment as shown above Add 2 cm of magnesium strip to 20 cm3 of HCl Write down the volume of the gas every 5 secs for 1 minute Use concentrations M To prevail the different concentrations I added water to 1M hydrochloric acid Molarity weewee/Acid cm3 1 Fair test/ReliabilityBy controlling all the other variables (temperature, surface area and using a catalyst) I am leaving altogether whizz thus make my go outs accurate and reliable and easier to test. I am also using the same amount of acid (variable) and magnesium each time making it a fair test. I have also repeated my experiment so that I feces average out my results making it fair, as extremities will be averaged out. To make it a reliable and fair test I have made sure that the gas syringe is always at 0 at the beginning of each experiment and I will crop up the clock as soon as the Magnesium meets the HCl and always make sure that the Mg is cut to exactly to 2 cm.Safety Always wear goggles so that no acid screw go in your eye Wash acid after using acid so that acid does not transfer onto things that you touch and worse in your mouth (from the food that you eat). Results Test 1 Molarity (M) Water/Acid cm3 T 5s I 10s M 15s E 20s 25s I 30s N 35s 40s S 45s E 50s C 55s S 6Test 2 Molarity (M) Water/Acid cm3 T 5s I 10s M 15s E 20s 25s IVolume of H2 collected Rate of Reaction The rate of a reaction is how quickly the reactants turn into products.To work out the rate of reaction I have decided to find the time that each reaction took to expire 8 ml of H2 and converting it into a rate. The formula for Rate of Reaction is 1/time (secs) Molarity (M) numeration Rate (3dp) The rate of reaction tell you how fast each reaction takes to get to point as you can see from my rate of reaction graph as the molarity increases the reaction is quicker apart from 0. 8 (sources of error in evaluation). This graph is useful, as initially I has thought 0. 7 moles was the untimely result but this graph proved otherwise.Also from this graph I can find out what the rate should have been for 0. 9 ideally which is 0. 036 so the time it would have taken for this experiment to go 8 ml of H2 is 1/rate = 1/0. 036 = 28. 7 seconds. I can also predict other resu lts Conclusion As my graphs and results show the volume of gas produced in the first minute increases with the increase in molarity apart from 0.8 moles, this anomaly occurred both times which is unusual but apart from that result I know that Molarity is proportional to volume of gas collected per minute.E. g. it takes longer for 8 ml of gas to be collected as the concentration reduces, which proves my prediction right. This is because there are more particles in the same volume if the concentration is increased. Here is a diagram Less moles More moles Evaluation I believe the plan was good and enabled me to get the results that I needed.My experiment went very well apart from my one anomaly (0.8 Moles) this is unusual as it happened both time as but these are some reasons why this happened Sources of Error Gas syringe was only to the nearest ml Magnesium it used up the HCl most it and turned it into MgCl but did not react with the acid at the bottom making the reaction slow Heat as the Mg reacts with HCl heat is given off speeding up the reaction mankind Error reading the gas wrong, starting or stopping the clock at the wrong time etc.Solving these Errors Gas syringe use a position sensor on the gas syringe, which is attached to a computer. This will record the results with no anomalies.Magnesium shake the test tube every so often Heat cant solve this, the reaction is exothermic Human Error use a position sensor on the gas syringe, which is attached to a computer. This will record the results with no human anomalies. Extension To extend the investigation I would do the experiment again put try and put right all the sources of error and see if my results come out perfect. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Romeos character Essay Example for Free

Romeos character EssayThe repetition of words and phrases is another effective device used by Shakespeare to communicate Romeos mood at different points in the play. The constant repetition of the word love tightens the tautness of the plot as the two families are enemies and exceeds an extra insight into Romeos character. This shows that Romeo is adamant and once he has make is mind up, then it cannot be changed.In addition, Romeo communicates in an affectionate manner towards the start, save as tautness builds up and everything seems to get serious, words like night and murder are used. These words build up tension and show to the interview that something bad is about to happen.Later in Act 3, Scene 3, this takes dwelling at the Friar Lawrences cell. Romeo gets the bad news from Friar Lawrence about his banishment. Friar Lawrence opens his speech with Romeo, hump forth, come forth, thou fear ful man, this shows that Romeo is frightened and knows that he didnt mean to kil l Tybalt. As Romeo enters the scene he is surprise and scared, as he opens his speech he uses the word sorrow, which shows what else does he have to see. Friar Lawrence uses the quote, Not bodys death, but bodys banishment. This shows the auditory sense that if Romeo dies his soul will still live on. Romeo has and realised that he has done something, which he will regret as he says, Be merciful say deathmuch more than death. Romeo is angry at hearing about is destiny. Friar Lawrence then moves on as Romeos anger rises as Friar says, Be patient, for the world is broad and wide.This sows that he world is a large place able to live somewhere else. Romeos anger is still rising as he thinks about Juliet, There is no world without Verona walls this is where Juliet hides in the streets of Verona. Romeo continues on madly and angrily and soon Friar Lawrence gets frustrated and says, O deadly sin O rude unthankfulness, here Friar is trying to calm Romeo down and him to have respect for Fr iar, as Romeo is just babbling on. However, Romeo still talks about the heaven which is Juliet as he thinks what life would be without Juliet in his life. Here the audience will have a shock in that Romeo will lose Juliet and excessively that he will be banished. Romeos mood here is high tempered as he is already suffering the effects of banishment. Romeo refuses to be comforted as he is discharge through to much chafe and anger.However, Shakespeare uses the nurse as a dramatic device and dramatically Romeos mood changes Nurse Romeo feels comforted as the nurse tells Romeo how Juliet is feeling O she says nothing, sir, but weeps and weeps.and then Romeo cries, and then down falls again. Romeo feels the pain that Juliet is going through and tries to stab himself, Tell me, that I may sack the hateful mansion (destroy my body). However, the nurse snatches the gummed label away, as he feels guilty of killing Tybalt and doesnt want Juliet to hate him and not to see him as a murderer. Shot from the deadly level of gun, did murder her, as that names cursed hand murdered her kinsman. However, the audience feel the same way as Romeo does angry and feeling sympathetic of what Romeo has done to be abuse by Juliet. Romeos mood is comforted when the nurse give Romeo the ring from Juliet, Here, sir, a ring she bid me give you, sir. Romeo replys How well my comfort is revived by this. This shows that his mood is changing time to time and now he is being relaxed instead of highly tempered as he was in the beginning of the scene.Friar Lawrence rebukes Romeo for his drop of manliness, love and intelligence. He reminds Romeo of his good fortune and plans how he can eventually be recalled from exile. Friar Lawrence delivers his yearn speech, first rebuking Romeo, then seeking to cheer him, then setting out a plan of process this keeps the audience interested in the scene. Romeo is trying to seek hope as he is anxious of face-off Juliet and afraid of losing her. Friar Law rence sends Romeo to Juliet, warning him to leave early for the Mantua and await news. Sojourn (stay, wait) in Mantua Ill acquire out your man, and he shall signify from time to time every good hap to you that chances here. Romeo is calm as Friar settles him down with his plan and he ends the scene with some hope for the future.William Shakespeares romantic tragedy Romeo and Juliet is a play full of dramatic devices, body language, seventh cranial nerve expressions and especially Romeos mood changes. Romeo in the play uses facial expressions, voice tone and body language to express his feelings and use the correct tone of voice to emphasise the anger and pain that he is going through. Shakespeare shows Romeos change of mood and situation trough his choice of language, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as, when Romeo is feeling passionate he uses the word bright, sun and kill the envious moon to express his feelings towards Juliet as well as the audience/reader. However, when Romeo is in a critical state he uses words such as, murder, banishment and death to express his feelings as this indicates that the situation in the story has become serious, which creates tension towards the audience and builds up the atmosphere.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Altruism among humans Essay Example for Free

Altruism among homos EssayThis paper presents an examination of the phenomenon of altruism among humans. Altruism is define as a behaviour that may be to ones advantage but is also to the advantage of former(a)(a)s. The questions of wherefore we behave this way or what motivates us to behave in this manner and the relevance to society directly atomic number 18 the focus of this paper. Various research and theories has explained why egoless behaviour is undertaken intentionally in the human world.Introduction We practically read or hear about acts of generosity and courage, such as, fund raisers or concerts tohelp homeless people, the fostering of a child and sponsoring his or her education, or of volunteers risking their lives to help victims in incidents interchangeable September 11 terrorist attack in the United States. We could have donated some money to orphanages or cared for a wounded dog. Such humane acts are defined by Psychologists as altruism (Moghaddam, 199 8). Altruistic acts could be unselfish or done for personal gain or egoistic reasons. Indeed in a psychological paradigm, psychologists believe that true unselfish behaviour does non exist (Moghaddam, 1998).But how do we neb for the behaviour of Mother Theresa or Mahatma Gandhi and many other unselfish acts of human endeavours? In enounce to look this we have to understand the person variable and situational variable prompt the altruistic act (Simons, Kalichman Santrock, 1994). As we are aware behaviour is de terminalined by personal and situational variables. A persons ability to empathise with the needy or to feel responsible for anothers welfare has great impact on altruistic behaviour. Situations influence the strength of the altruistic motivation.Reciprocity and exchange are important aspects of altruism (Simons, Kalichman Santrock, 1994). Humans give and receive from others everywhere. Reciprocity is the primary principle of every religion in the world for example, Ju daism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and Islam (Brosnahan, 2003). To act altruistically, requires consciousness and caring, and similarly, pet owners can often cite altruistic behaviour or at least conscious acts of kindness on the luck of cats and dogs (Simons, Kalichman Santrock, 1994).Another good example would be the nursing,profession founded on the notion of helping people, sometimes eve at a cost to nurses themselves. There are many ways people show altruism. To explain why we do altruistic acts like volunteering, donating or raising funds, we need to distinguish between 4 different forms of altruism which are observed in humans that shown towards kin, a partner, a friend, and individual who does not fit into these categories (http//www. theunityofknowledge. org/the_evolution_of_altruism/introduction. htm, 2003) Of the several types of altruism a main focus has been on heroic altruism (Moghaddam, 1998).It is a short term intervention requiring physical action and tend s to fit more the masculine gender. On the other hand Nurturant altruism requires more patience, listening and a caring attitude with long term involvement. This more closely fits the image of the traditional feminine gender (Moghaddam, 1998). The Bystander effect greatly influences helping behaviour, because of reciprocal ignorance of bystanders and assumptions about other bystanders actions. Each persons scope of responsibilities can decrease in the presence of others ( Moghaddam, 1998).Inorder for Bystander to help he or she has to posses social skills to interpret the situation and take appropriate actions (Moghaddam, 1998). Initially from a theoretical perspective if a person knows how to overcome obstacles to he or she giving help, subsequently other people start questioning whether the helping behaviour was true altruism (Moghaddam, 1998). A later on that point was a theory of Daniel Batson empathy-altruism, believes that people help out of a genuine desire(Moghaddam, 1998 ).Other theories propose that altruistic behaviour is egoistic and put the hypothesis that helping behaviour is a way torepair a helpers image (Moghaddam, 1998). Methodology An interview was conducted with a woman who volunteers her services with meals on wheels and has done nearly 16 years. She is a retired school teacher living alone. I assumed that her altruistic behaviour had a self fulfilling motive. Therefore I chose her and I wanted to clarify or confirm my assumption. In order to expedite my focus interviewee was given ten questions asking about her volunteering profile, and her motivating factors. This interview created awareness of other influencing factors motivating her altruistic behaviour.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Race and Ethnicity Essay Example for Free

Race and Ethnicity EssayRace and racial issues are all around us. zip can sneak behind a curtain, or tuck themselves away in a blasphemous room to avoid this thither isnt a way to escape racism. Our day to day lives are filled with stereotypes and overgeneralizations that make us think and judge the wrong way. We werent born into a speed up or into a category, but rather into a large melting pot. As Tim Wise said, volume of cops when asked What would you assume about a inexorable or Latino male who lives in a singular neighborhood and has a nice, new(a) car? would respond those men are more than in all probability medicine dealers just because of their race, when in fact, when compared to Black and Latino males, White males are four times more likely to be in possession of drugs at the time of an arrest. Our founders did not want this to be the case. Abraham Lincoln fought to eradicate slavery and abolish the inequality between Human Beings, not guide us in to mentat ion the color of our splutter shapes us and the opinions we create for others based on their race.Can you believe that xciv percent of White Americans believe that racial problems are a small issue like not being able to find the match to your shoe, whereas the other six percent are fully apprised that this is a huge controversial issue? Those good deal who believe racism has dwindled down that much take in to have an eye opener. Majority of White Americans are the ones who stereotype and categorize those of a different skin color. It is us White Americans who benefit from being the main race, and having the White exemption.More people affect to go to a Black neighborhood and talk to those who see racism every day because in the area that about half of us live, racism is small compared to a large city. White fringe benefit might have begun around the same time slavery had. White people, being the majority, saw the new race as an opportunity to become supreme ruler over somet hing, to have large groups of people work for them. The African American community thought differently, and tried running away.Infuriated, the Whites began on a tout ensemble new level believing anyone who ran away from the plantation was sick. Slavery in general, helped create white privilege and stereotype all African Americans into the working type, and now the druggies. All these past experiences have made it harder for African Americans to strive in our society. In previous decades, they deliberately separated White and Black neighborhoods, and when a Black moved into a White neighborhood, the houses value and the neighborhoods value decreased just because the people who moved there were of a different color.It is absolutely ridiculous that racism is still around about just as much as it was seven years ago. Anybody with logical thinking would believe that it would have dwindled down to something slight severe. Unfortunately, several towns are still divided and segregated bec ause of race and skin color. I hope I get to see every race and skin color come unitedly and work together fully, across the nation before Im fifty, thats thirty three years from now.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Theory of Bomb Calorimetry Essay Example for Free

Theory of Bomb Calorimetry EssayThe purpose of this taste is to learn how to apply the laws of thermodynamics to chemical reactions. In this particular experiment we will use a go bad calorimeter to study enkindles associated with fire reactions. A bomb calorimeter is a device used for measuring the standard arouse of combustion associated with a chemical reaction. The standard heat of combustion for a substance is defined as the enthalpy change, accompanies a process in which one mole of a substance undergoes a combustion reaction with oxygen. It can be found according to equation 1. 1)H- Enthalpy R foul up unvaried n number of moles U Internal Energy s denotes sample combusted 0 denotes standard soil (25C, 1bar). The internal energy change of the sample is found from from equation 2, where change in temperature is obtained from experiment and heat capacity of the calorimeter is obtained from standardization of the bomb calorimeter (see Preparations section). The h eat capacity of the equip is usually known. 2) T- temperature w denotes iron wire. Gas constant, R, can be taken to be 8. 315 J/K mol or a more(prenominal) precise value can be obtained from literature. Temperature, T, is the standard state temperature=25C.Change in moles of gas, , 3) From equation 3 we can see that the change in moles of gas is =12-14. 5=-2. 5 At this point we film enough information to calculate the standard heat of combustion Experimental Setup 1. Make trusted all connections to galvanic outlet argon disconnected. 2. Make sure all the parts to the bomb calorimeter are at hand. 3. Make a sample blastoff (Figure1) using a shooter press. 4. Fuse a metal wire into the pellet of the chemical whose heat of combustion is to be determined 5. Attach the ends of the wire onto the two center poles of the cap that is screwed onto the bomb cavity as show in Figure2.Screw the chapeau onto the bomb cavity (make sure that the lid is on tight). At this point your bomb sh ould look give care the bomb in Figure3. Warning DO NOT ALLOW THE BOMB TO SHAKE ONCE THE drag INSIDE IT HAS BEEN INCREASED. 7. Close the bomb valve and raise the pull wrong the bomb with the help of a ram tank until 25 atm is reached. 8. Purge the bomb of the Nitrogen gas by opening the mechanical press release valve (Figure3) and releasing the gas. Point the bomb away from yourself and others while purging it of Nitrogen gas. 9. Raise the pressure inside the bomb with the help of a pressure tank until 25 atm is reached.10. Attach the electrodes to the electrode slots on the cap shown in Figure 3. 11. Place bomb in metal pail placed inside the calorimeter jacket, filled with 1L of Distilled water as show in Figure 4. 12. Place the calorimeter lid on die of jacket, ensuring that the thermometer and stirrer are inside the water as show in Figure4. 13. Attach the stirrer rush to the apparatus (Figure4) and plug the stirrer into electrical outlet. 14. Plug in the ignition unit. Running the experiment 16. excoriation the stirrer. 17. Begin taking temperature reading with the thermometer every 10 seconds. 18.Allow system to run for 5-10 minutes. 19. Ignite the pellet with the ignition unit and continue to measure the temperature until 5 minutes after the temperature peaks. 20. Unplug all the electrical connections. 21. Next remove jacket lid, and remove the bomb from the water 22. In a designated area of the configuration room release the gas inside of the bomb by opening the pressure release valve. 23. once all the gas is removed, unscrew the cap and measure the mass of wire remaining, and ensure that all of the pellet was combusted 24. Begin the calculation process (refer to the theory section).

Friday, April 5, 2019

Theories of Mental Health Illness Within Sociology

Theories of Mental Health Illness Within Sociology discriminate and contrast two of the five approaches to cordial wellness illness within Sociology. ( amicable causation, mixer chemical reaction (labelling speculation), small theory, hearty constructivism social realism)Mental Health IllnessThe issue of mental health has long been an design of study for order, the psychiatric professions and sociology has similarly had a long tradition of offering theoretical insights into the phenomenon. Why this mogul be is open to debate and many of the key sociological theories in parity to mental health confound in fact as much to say about the prevailing capturepoints within society and within professional bodies towards mental health as they do about those who suffer from mental health related problems (Cockerham, 1992). The two some thoroughgoing of the sociological theories concerning mental health have been social reaction or labelling theories as well as that of social constructivism.Both these theories examined within this essay offer a radical conception of mental health in comparison to what might be called the dominant health check and social views on mental health. However while both of these theories offer a radical view of mental health they differ substantially in the theoretical framework which they respectively utilize towards spirit mental health. These residuums passel be located in patient ofer trends which have occurred within the discipline of sociology itself as a shift in the major theoretical traditions within the discipline, (Delanty, 1999). The two sociological theories examined be that of social reaction and social constructivism.Social ReactionThis critical theory emerged in the 1960s which in itself might assist to highlight the broader critical strands present within society when this theory was formulated. Labelling theory works from the simple infix that to define someone as mentally ill conveys upon them a stere otypical image which the person forget then act. It drew its framework from the symbolic interactionism school of sociology so at its root this theory want to examine the ways in which roles and actors interacted and played out within the drama of mental illness (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999. thus for labelling theory the relationship amidst the patient (or the individual defined as ill), family, medical professions and society mostly is the determining factor for analysis in relation to mental illness.For labelling theorists then the primary winding framework for analysing mental illness is to examine the twin concepts of primary deviance and supportary deviance. Primary deviance relates to things which might actually be wrong or actions or circumstances which involve actual rule breaking, (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999) and for labelling theorists the most elicit item regarding this is the way those around sufferers rationalise and ignore this behaviour up unto a point, (Ineichen , 197911). Perhaps the most illustrative study of this phenomenon was the work of Yarrow, Schwartz, Murphy and Deasy (1955) which illustrated the various ways in which wives would dismiss strange behaviour up until a point was reached in terms of deviant behaviour.However it is secondary deviance which labelling theory distinguishs as the much more problematic of the two forms of deviance and it is here that the relate also between the second of our theories examined are strongest. For labelling theorists secondary deviance has a frame of critical factors. But simply regularize secondary deviance refers to those manifestations of symptoms which are not related in any way to the actual carnal incidence. Thus we might say that the aetiology of secondary deviance is a function of the societal conditions contact the individuals rather than intrinsic conditions within the individual themselves. As Rosenham (1973) states The question of whether the sane corporation be august from the feyis a simple matter do the salient characteristics that lead to diagnoses reside in the patients themselves or in the environmentsin which observers find them (250).In Rosenhams case where eight pseudo-patients gained entry into hospitals on the pretence of being berserk to reaction to this question lay firmly in the area of the observers. darn popular at first with a number of studies finding the concepts expressed in the theory to be true in a number of famous studies labelling theory has not decreased in popularity with a number of major criticisms being levelled at the theory as a head of further investigation and continued studiesWhile labelling theory surmised that primary and secondary deviance were linked in that one will tend to lead to the other as a result of the ensuing interaction between the individual sufferer and those that label the sufferer this was not borne out by the research. In the case of Rosenhams study it was found that the label of deviant though at first an uncomfortable and disturbing experience did not persist for a great length of era with the pseudo-patients in the experiment, (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999).Another weakness expressed in labelling theory is the relationship between the stereotypical images of the insane believed to be held by the public. If society was to blame for labelling the insane then it would have been expected that the images lay battalion had conformed to the images of diagnosis, yet research has shown that this is not the case. Indeed lay perceptions to mental illness have been demonstrated to merely marginally relate to the images associated with medical diagnosis, (Pilgrim and Rogers, 199918).Labelling theory accepts then (and is a criticism of the theory) that a distinction can be drawn between physical disorders, primary deviance, and the ensuing reaction from society which causes secondary deviance. For the second theory we examine here the existence of both categories is dependent on soci ety or in other words that mental illness exists as a completely subjective definition.Social ConstructivismWhile referring to a broad range of social critiques across a many wide variety of disciplines it is whitethornhap best represented in terms of its comments on mental health by the works of the French theorist Michel Foucault. In fact his seminal work The cause of the Clinic sets out the radical standstill with which social constructivism is associated. In this Foucault argues that insanity exists as a classificatory concept derived from the subjective description of medical association. Or that the objectification of insanity occurred after as well as in tandem with the development of psychiatric knowledge, the insane developed as a problematised group which in turn led to strategies being developed to have sex them, (Foucault, 1976)Superficially then we can see many similarities between these two theories in that both see a critical role for society in the determination of the meaning of mental illness. The critical difference is that while for social reactionists and labelling theorists a division exists between primary deviance which has a physical locale and secondary deviance which arises out of societal causes whereas social constructivists assign the loci of mental health strictly to the social environment. It does this through utilising the theoretical framework of discourses, thus the subjectivity of being mad is defined through the objectifying turn of psychiatric or medical knowledge generally (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999).While many works recently have adopted social constructivist viewpoints in relation to medical knowledge it is Foucaults works which are the best know and also which have been the most influential in developing this theoretical viewpoint. Foucaults work was in particular concerned with how the shifting conceptions of what madness meant to society led to the development of a discrete set of knowledges which pathologise me ntal states according to a classificatory system related to madness and what were the strategies which developed as a result of this knowledge towards the control and management of the insane (Foucault, 1972, 1976).This concept has had radial implications for a consideration of mental health and how it is defined in as well as by society. This theoretical framework can be seen thusly to criticise not only psychiatric practice but also psychiatric knowledge and even more critically the processes through which psychiatric knowledge is generated. Indeed from a social constructivist viewpoint it is the very construction of knowledge which leads to the boundaries and categories which delineates and determines who it is we call insane and indeed what it is that makes them insane for society.Perhaps the biggest criticism we can make of the social constructivist viewpoint is the lack of a normative basis to its analysis. While the critique may be valid social constructivist theories can be distinctly vague about resistances to the all ruling discourses which they describe and analyse. Similarly the ability to formulate social policies arising out of the critique may similarly be limited (Rogers and Pilgrim, 2001 175). A secondary point and one which we have already made in relation to labelling theory is that perhaps social constructivism deconstructs too much certain incidences of mental illness, perhaps there are some illnesses which in their aetioloigcal sense reveal themselves to be indeed physical manifestations of what we might actually be able to call a disorder (Zinberg, 1970).Thus from this analysis we can see the close links as well as the clear differences between these two theories. While both are radical in their outlook we can argue that social constructivism has even been more radical. Similarly while social reaction theories have fallen out of favour along as well it must be noted as symbolic interactionsim in general social constructivist theories ha ve been and continue to be hugely influential not only in relation to mental illness but to a broad range of social scientific disciplines and social issues.ReferencesCockerham, W. C. (1992) Sociology of Mental Disorder 3rd Ed., Simon and Schuster Co. New Jersey USDelanty, G. (1999) Social Theory in a Changing World, Polity Press, Malden USFoucault, M. (1976) The Archaeology of Knowledge, Tavistock, London UKFoucault, M. (1976) The Birth of the Clinic, Tavistock, London UKIneichen, B. (1979) The Social Structure of Modern Britain Mental Illness, Longman, London UKPilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. (1999) A Sociology of Mental Illness, 2nd Ed., afford University Press, NY USRogers, A. and Pilgrim, D. (2001) Mental Health Policy in Britain, Palgrave, Basingstoke UKRosenham, D.L. (1973) On Being Sane in kooky Places Science, Vol 179 JanYarrow, M., Schwartz, C, Murphy, H. and Deasy, L. (1955) The Psychological Meaning of Mental Illness in the Family, Journal of Social Issues, Vol 11 No. 12Zi nberg, N. (1970) The Mirage of Mental Health, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 21 No. 3